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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 127, Issue 3, pp 2059–2074 | Cite as

Space-resolved thermal properties of thermoplastics reinforced with carbon nanotubes

  • Pauline Rivière
  • Tiina Nypelö
  • Orlando J. Rojas
  • Andreas Klug
  • Norbert Mundigler
  • Rupert Wimmer
Article

Abstract

Composites comprising biobased poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polyethylene (Bio-PE) were reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). These nanocomposites were analyzed using space-resolved thermal analysis (TA) integrated with atomic force microscopy. The deflection temperature, which indicates thermal-induced expansion and thermal transitions of the composite, was monitored by nanoscale TA (nanoTA) utilizing the displacement of a cantilever in contact with the material. Results were compared to bulk electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. Electrical conductivity was detected at lower MWCNT loadings for PLA than for Bio-PE (at 2.5 vs. 5 mass%). Maximal electrical conductivity of 27 S m−1 for PLA and 0.7 S m−1 for Bio-PE-based samples was reached at 10 mass% MWCNT loading. Tensile behavior combined with thermogravimetric analysis indicated strong MWCNT–Bio-PE interactions, in contrast to PLA. The glass transition and melting temperature measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were not changed by the increase in MWCNT loading. Increased deflection temperature was registered by bulk heat deflection measurements on Bio-PE, but not for PLA. The thermal transitions obtained by nanoTA at the nanoscale were in the same temperature range as the first transitions observed upon temperature ramp in DSC (e.g., glass transition and melt temperatures of PLA and Bio-PE, respectively). Remarkably, thermal expansion was detected by nanoTA for PLA- and Bio-PE-based composites below electrical percolation threshold as well as an increase in PLA softening temperature. Space-resolved nanothermal analysis revealed thermal phenomena that are otherwise overlooked when bulk methods are applied.

Keywords

Nanocomposite Thermoplastic Conductivity Nanothermal AFM Nanoindentation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by the Institute of Wood Technology and Renewable Materials, as well as the Institute of Natural Materials Technologies, both at BOKU, Tulln. Paul Patter and Prof. Emil J. W. List-Kratochvil from the NanoTecCenter Weiz are acknowledged for their support concerning the electrical conductivity measurements. We would like to thank the Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH for providing access to various measuring equipments, i.e., Lukas Sobczak and Christoph Jocham for their support during the experiments. We would also like to thank Prof. Dietmar Pum of the Department of Nanobiotechnology, BOKU. Finally, Dr. Soledad Peresin from VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is thanked for the initiation of the nanothermal analysis work. NatureWorks® and C-polymers are acknowledged for providing the raw materials.

Funding

The presented study received substantial financial support from the Government of Lower Austria.

Supplementary material

10973_2016_5751_MOESM1_ESM.tif (855 kb)
Fig. A1 Method of electrical surface conductivity measurement with ring electrodes (ring-e) (a) and with four-point measurement method (b), where R is the ohmmeter, S the current source, I the ammeter and U the voltmeter, d and s correspond to distances in m between electrodes (TIFF 854 kb)
10973_2016_5751_MOESM2_ESM.tif (831 kb)
Fig. A2 Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of PLA (a)- and Bio-PE (b)-based nanocomposites, averaged from ten tensile tests realized by the standard ISO 527 (TIFF 831 kb)
10973_2016_5751_MOESM3_ESM.tif (2.7 mb)
Fig. A3 Effect of heating rate (HR) on the thermal ramp deflection versus temperature (a) and the resulting indentation (b) (TIFF 2741 kb)
10973_2016_5751_MOESM4_ESM.tif (647 kb)
Table A4 Softening temperature of the Bio-PE and PLA composites derived from the nanothermal analysis and thermo-oxidative degradation temperatures and maximal speed of degradation derived from TG (TIFF 646 kb)
10973_2016_5751_MOESM5_ESM.tif (1.6 mb)
Fig. A5 Width and depth of the indentation in PLA (a) and Bio-PE (b) composites induced by the nanothermal ramping (NanoTA measurements) (TIFF 1633 kb)

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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), Institute for Natural Materials TechnologyUniversity of Natural Resources and Life SciencesViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Material Sciences and Process Engineering, Institute of Wood Technology and Renewable MaterialsUniversity of Natural Resources and Life SciencesViennaAustria
  3. 3.Division of Chemistry of Renewable Resources, Department of ChemistryUniversity of Natural Resources and Life SciencesViennaAustria
  4. 4.Department of Forest Products ChemistryAalto University School of Chemical TechnologyEspooFinland
  5. 5.NanoTecCenter Weiz Forschungsgesellschaft GmbHWeizAustria

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