Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

, Volume 93, Issue 2, pp 459–469 | Cite as

Conductometric and calorimetric studies of the serially diluted and agitated solutions

On the combined anomalous effect of time and volume parameters
  • P. Belon
  • V. Elia
  • L. Elia
  • M. Montanino
  • E. Napoli
  • M. Niccoli
Article

Abstract

We systematically analysed the experimental data related to the specific conductivities and heats in excess of several serially diluted and agitated solutions (SDA for short). For all of the analysed samples, we found that both the excess conductivity, χE (μS cm−1), and excess heat, QmixE (J kg−1), varied with the age of the sample (up to 2 years of ageing). Furthermore, we found that after a certain period of ageing, small volume samples exhibited a much higher excess than large volume ones. The results we report in this paper are the product of a systematic study, during which we operated on known and constant volumes across the life of the samples. The incidence of volume on χE and QmixE turned out to be overwhelming when compared with that of time. The temporal evolution of the smaller samples was found significantly higher than that of the larger volume ones. A careful numerical analysis of the results uncovered an extraordinary and unexpected correlation, of exponential kind, between the excess parameters and the volume of the solution in the container. As for the temporal evolution of these systems, we found that the measured excess heats and conductivity often reach a maximum. That led us to the conclusion that the temporal evolution of the physico-chemical parameters is not caused by the slow process of equilibrium attainment; on the contrary, these systems are far from equilibrium systems, dissipative structures, whose experimental behaviour is certainly due to the variation of the super-molecular structure of the solvent, water. The agitation phase during the preparation could be the trigger for the formation of dissipative structures and the emergence of the novel behaviour. We put forth a simple rationalizing hypothesis, based on the general idea of water as an auto-organizing system that, when elicited by even small perturbations, can enter a far from equilibrium state, sustained by the dissipation of the electromagnetic energy coming from the environment. (Dissipative Structures).

Keywords

calorimetry conductometry dissipative structures homeopathic dilution SDA 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    O. Mishima and H. E. Stanley, Nature, 392 (1998) 164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Malescio, G. Franzese, A. Skibinsky, Buldyrev, V. Sergey and H. E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E, 71 (2005) 061504/1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. J. Bakker, M. F. Kropman and A. W. Omta, J. Phys. Condensed Matt., 17 (2005) 3215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Franzese and H. E. Stanley, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Preprint Archive, Condensed Matter, (2006) pp. 1–28.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G.W. Robinson, C. Hee Cho and G. I. Gellene, J. Phys. Chem. B, 104 (2000) 7179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Woutersen and H. J. Bakker, Nature, 402 (1999) 507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Wourtersen, U. Emmerichs and H. J. Bakker, Science, 278 (1997) 658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. W. Robinson, C. H. Cho and G. I. Gellene, J. Phys. Chem. B., 104 (2000) 7179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. K. Gregory, D. C. Clary, K. Liu, M. G. Brown and R. J. Saykally, Science, 275 (1997) 814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Ropp, C. Lawrence, T. C. Farrar and J. L. Skinner, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 121 (2001) 8047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. R. Errington and P. G. Debenedetti, Nature, 409 (2001) 318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. I. Lobyshev, R. E. Shikhlinskaya and B. D. Ryzhikov, J. Mol. Liq., 82 (1999) 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. I. Lobyshev, A. B. Solovey and N. A. Bulienkov, J. Mol. Liq., 106 (2003) 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. Elia and M. Niccoli, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 879 (1999) 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. Elia and M. Niccoli, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 61 (2000) 527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    V. Elia and M. Niccoli, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 75 (2004) 815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Elia, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli, L. Nonatelli, A. Ramaglia and E. Ventimiglia, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 78 (2004) 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. Elia, M. Marchese, M. Montanino, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli, L. Nonatelli and A. Ramaglia, J. Solution Chem., 34 (2005) 947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. Elia, L. Elia, P. Cacace, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli and F. Savarese, J. Therm. Anal. Cal., 84 (2006) 317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    V. Elia, L. Elia, M. Marchese, M. Montanino, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli, L. Nonatelli and F. Savarese, J. Mol. Liq., (2006) in press.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    V. Elia, L. Elia, M. Montanino, E. Napoli, M. Niccoli and L. Nonatelli, J. Mol. Liq., (2006) accepted.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Samal and K. E. Geckeler, Chem. Commun., (2001) 2224.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    L. Rey, Physica A, 323 (2003) 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Hahnemann, Organon, VI Edizione, RED, 1985.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. S. Light and S. Licht, Anal. Chem., 59 (1987) 2327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Varian SpectrA Manual.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    V. Elia, L. Elia, E. Napoli and M. Niccoli, Int. J. Ecodyn., (2006) accepted.SGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Nicolis, Physics of Far-equilibrium Systems and Self-organization, P. Davies, Ed., The New Physics, Cambrige University Press, New York 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Belon
    • 1
  • V. Elia
    • 2
  • L. Elia
    • 3
  • M. Montanino
    • 2
  • E. Napoli
    • 2
  • M. Niccoli
    • 2
  1. 1.Sainte-FoyFrance
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity ‘Federico II’ of Naples, Complesso Universitario di Monte S’AngeloNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUniversity ‘Federico II’ of NaplesNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations