Skip to main content

Epistemological Predictors of “Self Efficacy on Learning Biology” and “Test Anxiety Related to Evaluation of Learning on Biology” for Pre-service Elementary Teachers

Abstract

The degree to which pre-service teachers learn biology is related to both motivational factors of self-regulation and factors regarding epistemological beliefs. At the same time, self-regulation and epistemological beliefs are also associated with one another. Based on this relationship, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between components of epistemological beliefs and self-refulation (self-efficacy and test-anxiety) on learning biology. The study was conducted with 411 pre-service elementary and pre-service elementary science teachers by using a predictive research approach. Collected data was analyzed by the multiple linear regression technique. The results showed that only the belief about “existence of one truth” was a significant predictor of test anxiety while there was no epistemological predictor of self-efficacy. Conclusions and implications of the study will be discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. AAAS, American Association for The Advancement of Science. (1990). Science for all Americans. Retrived from http://www.project2061.org/publications/sfaa/online/ sfaatoc.htm in 30.07.2009.

  2. Alexander, P. A., & Dochy, F. (1995). Conceptions of knowledge and beliefs: A comparison across varying cultural and educational communities. American Educational Research Journal, 32(2), 413–442.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4). New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Barnard, L., Lan, W. Y., Crooks, S. M., & Patton, V. O. (2008). The relationship between epistemological beliefs and self-regulated learning skills in the online course environment. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4(3), 261–266.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Baxter Magolda, M. (1992). Knowing and reasoning in college: Gender-related patterns in students’ intellectual development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Belenky, M., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. (1986). Women’s ways of knowing: The development of self, mind, and voice. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bong, M. (2001). Role of self-efficacy and task-value in predicting college students’ course performance and future enrollment intentions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26, 553–570.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Brownlee, J. (2000). Beliefs about knowing in pre-service teacher education students. In L. Richardson & J. Lidstone (Eds.). Flexible learning for a flexible society (pp. 75–82). Proceedings of ASET-HERDSA 2000 Conference, Toowoomba, Qld, 2–5 July 2000. ASET and HERDSA.

  9. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, Ö. E., Demirel, F., & Özkahveci, Ö. (2004). The validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educational Science:Theory and Practice, 4(2), 207–239.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Chan, K. (2003). Preservice teachers’ epistemological beliefs and conceptions about teaching and learning: Cultural ımplications for research in teacher education, The NZARE AARE conference, 29th November–3rd December, Auckland, New Zealand.

  11. Chen, C. S. (2002). Self-regulated learning strategies and achievement in an introduction to information systems course. Information Technology, Learning and Performance Journal, 20(1), 11–25.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Deryakulu, D., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002). Epistemolojik İnanç Ölçeğinin Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması [In English; Validity and realiability study of epistemological beliefs questionnaire]. Eğitim Araştırmaları, 8, 111–125.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Deryakulu, D., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2005). The re-examination of the epistemological beliefs’ questionnaires’ factor structure: comparing epistemological beliefs in terms of gender and program type. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 18, 57–70.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Dogan, N., & Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2008). Turkish grade 10 students’ and science teachers’ conceptions of nature of science: A national study. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(10), 1083–1112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Douglas, L. (2006). Motivational factors, learning strategies and resource management as predictors of course grades. College Student Journal, 40(2), 423–427.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Erdem, E. (2007). Study of the relationship between test anxiety and the epistemological and problem-solving beliefs of students on a general chemistry course. World Applied Sciences Journal, 2(S), 750–758.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Feldman, R. S. (1997). Essentials of understanding psychology. USA: The McGraw Hill Companies.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2003). How to design and evaluate research in education (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Gess-Newsome, J., & Lederman, N. G. (2006). Biology teachers’ perceptions of subject matter structure and its relationship to classroom practice. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(3), 301–325.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hashweh, M. Z. (1987). Effects of subject-matter knowledge in the teaching of biology and physics. Teaching and Teacher Education, 3(2), 109–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58(1), 47–77.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Hembree, R. (1990). The Nature, effects, and relief of mathematics anxiety. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(1), 33–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hill, K. T., & Wigfield, A. (1984). Test anxiety: A major educational problem and what can be done about it? The Elementary School Journal, 85(1), 105–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hofer, B. K. (2001). Personal epistemology research: Implications for learning and teaching. Educational Psychology Review, 13(4), 353–383.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Hofer, B. K. (2002). Personal epistemology as a psychological and educational construct: An introduction. In B. Hofer & P. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 3–15). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Hofer, B. K. (2005). The legacy and the challenge: Paul Pintrich’s contributions to personal epistemology research. Educational Psychologist, 40, 95–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research, 67, 88–140.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Jehng, J. J., Johnson, S. D., & Anderson, R. C. (1993). Schooling and students’ epistemological beliefs about learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 23–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kan, A., & Akbaş, A. (2006). Affective factors that influence chemistry achievement (attitude and self efficacy) and the power of these factors to predict chemistry achievement-I. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 3(1), 76–85.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Khalid, T. (2001). Pre-service teachers’ misconceptions regarding three environmental ıssues. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 6, 102–120.

    Google Scholar 

  31. King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment (1st ed.). San Francisco, USA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Koksal, M. S. (2009). Vocational high school students’ sense of self-efficacy and test anxiety regarding biology learning. Inonu University Journal of The Faculty of Education, 10(1), 57–67.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Koksal, M. S., & Tasdelen, Ö. (2007). An analysis of scores of prospective biology teachers on the factors of MSLQ. 11th EARLI JURE conference. 8–11 July 2008. Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgıum.

  34. Krall, R. M., Lott, K. H., & Wymer, C. L. (2009). Inservice elementary and middle school teachers’ conceptions of photosynthesis and respiration. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 20, 41–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Kubiatko, M., & Prokop, P. (2007). Pupils misconcpeetions about mammals. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 6(1), 5–14.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Liang L. L., Chen, S., Chen, X., Kaya, O, N., Adams, A.D., Macklin, M., et al. (2008) Assessing preservice elementary teachers views on the nature of scientific knowledge: A dual-response instrument. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 9(1), 1.

  37. Lodewyk, K. R. (2007). Relations among epistemological beliefs, academic achievement and test performance in secondary school students. Educational Psychology, 27, 307–327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Muis, K. R. (2007). The role of epistemic beliefs in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 42(3), 173–190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Muis, K. R., Bendixen, L. D., & Haerle, F. (2006). Domain-generality and domain-specificity in personal epistemology research: Philosophical and empirical reflections in the development of a theoretical framework. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 3–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. OECD/PISA. (2003). PISA 2003 assessment framework: Mathematics, reading, science and problem solving knowledge and skills. Paris: OECD.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Pajares, F., & Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-beliefs and school success: Self-efficacy, self-concept, and school achievement. In R. Riding & S. Rayner (Eds.), Perception (pp. 239–266). London: Ablex Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Paulsen, M. B., & Feldman, K. A. (1999). Student motivation and epistemological beliefs. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 78, 77–80.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Paulsen, M. B., & Wells, C. T. (1998). Domain differences in the epistemological beliefs of college students. Research in Higher Education, 39(4), 365–384.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Perry, W. G. J. (1981). Cognitive and ethical growth: The making of meaning. In A. W. Chickering (Ed.), The modern American college (pp. 76–116). San Francisco: Jossey-Boss.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Phan, H. P. (2008). Multiple regression analysis of epistemological beliefs, learning approaches and self-regulated learning. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 6, 157–184.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Pieschl, S., Stahl, E., & Bromme, R. (2007). Epistemological beliefs and self-regulated learning with hypertext. Metacognition Learning, 3, 17–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Pintrich, P. R. (1990). Implications of psychological research on student learning and college teaching for teacher education. In W. R. Housten (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher educaton (pp. 826–857). New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 459–470.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivation and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3), 498–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Schommer, M. (1994). Synthesizing epistemological belief research: Tentative understandings and provocative confusions. Educational Psychology Review, 6(4), 293–319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Schommer-Aikins, M. (2002). An evolving theoretical framework for an epistemological belief system. In B. Hofer & P. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of belief about knowledge and knowing (pp. 103–118). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Schreiber, J. B., & Shinn, D. (2003). Epistemological beliefs of community college students and their learning processes. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 27(8), 699–709.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Schunk, D. H. (2000). Learning theories: An educational perspective. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

  55. Sungur, S. (2004). An implementation of problem based learning in high school biology courses. Unpublished Dissertation. Middle East Technical University, Ankara.

  56. Sungur, S., & Güngören, S. (2009). The Role of classroom environment perceptions in self-regulated learning and science achievement. Elementary Education Online, 8(3), 883–900.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Sungur, S., & Tekkaya, C. (2003). Students’ achievement in human circulatory system unit:The effect of reasoning ability and gender. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 12(1), 59–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Taraban, R., Box, C., Myers, R., Pollard, R., & Bowen, C. W. (2007). Effects of active-learning experiences on achievement, attitudes, and behaviors in high school biology. Journal of Research In Science Teaching, 44(7), 960–979.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Topcu, M. S., & Yılmaz-Tüzün, O. (2008). Relationships among preservice science teachers’ epistemological beliefs, epistemological world views, and self-efficacy beliefs. International Journal of Science Education, 30(1), 65–85.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Tsai, C., & Liu, S. (2005). Developing a multi-dimensional ınstrument for assessing students’ epistemological views toward science. International Journal of Science Education, 27(13), 1621–1638.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Uno, G. E., & Bybee, R. W. (1994). Understanding the dimensions of biological literacy. BioScience, 44(8), 553–557.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Wolters, C. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (1998). Contextual differences in student motivation and self-regulated learning in mathematics, English, and social studies classrooms. Instructional Science, 26, 27–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Yumusak, N., Sungur, S., & Çakıroglu, J. (2007). Turkish high school students’ biology achievement in relation to academic self-regulation. Educational Research and Evaluation, 13(1), 53–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mustafa Serdar Köksal.

About this article

Cite this article

Köksal, M.S. Epistemological Predictors of “Self Efficacy on Learning Biology” and “Test Anxiety Related to Evaluation of Learning on Biology” for Pre-service Elementary Teachers. J Sci Teacher Educ 22, 661–677 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10972-010-9205-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Self-efficacy
  • Test anxiety
  • Epistemological beliefs
  • Biology learning
  • Pre-service elementary teachers