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Structural, electrical, and weak ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic nature of Ni and La co-doped BaTiO3 by sol–gel combustion route


We report on structural, electrical, and weak ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic possessions of Ba(1−x)LaxNi0.01Ti0.99O3 (BLNT) samples with x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75%. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra show that the sol–gel combustion route synthesized samples are successfully incorporated with La3+ ions into BaNi0.01Ti0.99O3 (BNT) lattice. The EPR signals at g = 1.967 and g = 2.003 are attributed to the V(Ba) and V(Ti) defects, respectively. For x = 0.75%, V(Ba) signal disappears due to the subtle charge-compensation mechanism present in the BLNT sample. The BNT ceramics exhibit a weak ferromagnetic nature; upon La ion doping, the weak ferromagnetic (WFM) tends to exhibit strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) nature in BLNT. This magnetic phase transition can be described in the stipulation of the change in the oxidation state. Escalating in the dielectric constant and ac conductivity was due to the higher doping concentration of La3+ ion in BNT ceramics. BLNT clearly shows that as La3+ ion-doping concentration increases, the diameter of the impedance semicircle decreases due to the increased conducting nature of the samples. The ferroelectric property was deliberately investigated by a P–E hysteresis loop and its saturation polarization was found to decrease with increasing concentrations of La3+ ion doping, and the observed results are discussed.


  • Investigation on structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ba1-xLaxNi0.01Ti0.99O3 (BLNT) for x = 0.00, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75% prepared through solgel combustion route.

  • The EPR signals at g = 1.967 and g = 2.003 have been attributed to the V(Ba) and V(Ti) defects respectively.

  • The increasing value of Ms and Hc with doping of La3+ ion may be ascribed to exchange interactions between Ti3+–Ti4+ ions induced oxygen vacancies.

  • The magnetic measurement revealed that weak WFM to AFM transition behavior devising from the transition metal ions and rare-earth doped multifunctional ceramics.

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Madhan, K., Murugaraj, R. Structural, electrical, and weak ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic nature of Ni and La co-doped BaTiO3 by sol–gel combustion route. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 95, 11–21 (2020).

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  • Sol–gel combustion
  • Perovskite
  • Defects
  • Dielectrics
  • Ferroelectrics
  • Magnetism