Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue (MB) cationic dye from its aqueous solution using rubber-based hydrogel. In this work, the adsorption of two rubber-based hydrogels, namely maleated liquid natural rubber/acrylic acid hydrogel (LNR-g-MaH/AAc) and maleated liquid natural rubber/acrylic acid/montmorillonite hydrogel (LNR-g-MaH/AAc/MMT), was optimised by response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The effects of various parameters, such as adsorbent mass and initial concentrations of MB, were examined. The hydrogels were characterised using field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). A total of 13 experiments were conducted to establish a quadratic model. Among those two rubber-based hydrogels, LNR-g-MaH/AAc/MMT hydrogel had higher optimum adsorption efficiency with 99.07% of dye removal percentage. The optimum dye performance of LNR-g-MaH/AAc hydrogel was also effective as the dye removal percentage was about 95.46%. Those responses were recorded when the adsorbent mass and initial concentration of MB were optimally set as 0.55 g, and 5.50 mg L−1, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm model was found to be best fitted to adsorption for those two hydrogels. The maximum adsorption capacities were 1.85 mg/g for LNR-g-MaH/AAc and 9.74 mg/g for LNR-g-MaH/AAc. Two kinetic models were tested to correlate the experimental data and the sorption was discovered to fit well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. It was found that by introducing of montmorillonite (MMT) could improve the adsorption ability of the LNR-g-MaH/AAc hydrogel.
We show that rubber-based hydrogel performs the best when intercalated with montmorillonite.
Rubber-based hydrogel with montmorillonite shows better adsorption capability towards methylene blue.
Rubber-based hydrogel has thermal stability and usable in any aqueous solution.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Chiou M-S, Ho P-Y, Li H-Y (2004) Adsorption of anionic dyes in acid solutions using chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. Dye Pigment 60:69–84
Dastkhoon M, Ghaedi M, Asfaram A et al. (2017) Improved adsorption performance of nanostructured composite by ultrasonic wave: Optimization through response surface methodology, isotherm and kinetic studies. Ultrason Sonochem 37:94–105
Liu C, Omer AM, Ouyang X (2018) Adsorptive removal of cationic methylene blue dye using carboxymethyl cellulose/k-carrageenan/activated montmorillonite composite beads: isotherm and kinetic studies. Int J Biol Macromol 106:823–833
Mandal B, Ray SK (2016) Removal of safranine T and brilliant cresyl blue dyes from water by carboxy methyl cellulose incorporated acrylic hydrogels: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic study. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 60:313–327
Mohammadzadeh Pakdel P, Peighambardoust SJ (2018) A review on acrylic based hydrogels and their applications in wastewater treatment. J Environ Manag 217:123–143
Vudjung C, Saengsuwan S (2017) Synthesis and properties of biodegradable hydrogels based on cross-linked natural rubber and cassava starch. J Elastomers Plast 49:574–594
Mohamed MA, W. Salleh WN, Jaafar J et al. (2017) Physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystal and nanoporous self-assembled CNC membrane derived from Ceiba pentandra. Carbohydr Polym 157:1892–1902
Rosman N, Salleh WN, Mohamed MA et al. (2018) Hybrid membrane filtration-advanced oxidation processes for removal of pharmaceutical residue. J Colloid Interface Sci 532:236–260
Mohamed MA, Awang NA, Salleh WNW, Ismail AF (2019) Introduction to green polymeric membranes. In: Bio monomers for green polymeric composite materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chichester, p 95–116
Alias NH, Jaafar J, Samitsu S et al. (2020) Mechanistic insight of the formation of visible-light responsive nanosheet graphitic carbon nitride embedded polyacrylonitrile nanofibres for wastewater treatment. J Water Process Eng 33:101015
Mutalib MA, Aziz F, Jamaludin NA et al. (2018) Enhancement in photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by LaFeO3-GO integrated photocatalyst-adsorbents under visible light irradiation. Korean J Chem Eng 35:548–556
Mohamed MA, W. Salleh WN, Jaafar J et al. (2016) Regenerated cellulose membrane as bio-template for in-situ growth of visible-light driven C-modified mesoporous titania. Carbohydr Polym 146:166–173
Popli S, Patel UD (2015) Destruction of azo dyes by anaerobic–aerobic sequential biological treatment: a review. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12:405–420
Sarvajith M, Reddy GKK, Nancharaiah YV (2018) Textile dye biodecolourization and ammonium removal over nitrite in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors. J Hazard Mater 342:536–543
Chen D, Zeng Z, Zeng Y et al. (2016) Removal of methylene blue and mechanism on magnetic γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposite from aqueous solution. Water Resour Ind 15:1–13
Wang L, Zhang J, Wang A (2008) Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/montmorillonite superadsorbent nanocomposite. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 322:47–53
Ahmed EM (2015) Hydrogel: preparation, characterization, and applications: a review. J Adv Res 6:105–121
Sabadini RC, Silva MM, Pawlicka A, Kanicki J (2018) Gellan gum-O,O′-bis(2-aminopropyl)-polyethylene glycol hydrogel for controlled fertilizer release. J Appl Polym Sci 135:45636
Lim LS, Ahmad I, Mat Lazim A (2015) pH Sensitive hydrogel based on poly(acrylic acid) and cellulose nanocrystals. Sains Malaysiana 44:779–785
Zhou Y, Zhao Y, Wang L et al. (2012) Radiation synthesis and characterization of nanosilver/gelatin/carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel. Radiat Phys Chem 81:553–560
Aflaki Jalali M, Dadvand Koohi A, Sheykhan M (2016) Experimental study of the removal of copper ions using hydrogels of xanthan, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid, montmorillonite: Kinetic and equilibrium study. Carbohydr Polym 142:124–132
Fosso-Kankeu E, Mittal H, Waanders F, Ray SS (2017) Thermodynamic properties and adsorption behaviour of hydrogel nanocomposites for cadmium removal from mine effluents. J Ind Eng Chem 48:151–161
Nakhjiri MT, Marandi GB, Kurdtabar M (2018) Poly(AA-co-VPA) hydrogel cross-linked with N-maleyl chitosan as dye adsorbent: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic investigation. Int J Biol Macromol 117:152–166
Paulino AT, Guilherme MR, Reis AV et al. (2006) Removal of methylene blue dye from an aqueous media using superabsorbent hydrogel supported on modified polysaccharide. J Colloid Interface Sci 301:55–62
Salama A, Shukry N, El-Sakhawy M (2015) Carboxymethyl cellulose-g-poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) hydrogel as adsorbent for dye removal. Int J Biol Macromol 73:72–75
Abdel-Halim ES, Al-Deyab SS (2014) Preparation of poly(acrylic acid)/starch hydrogel and its application for cadmium ion removal from aqueous solutions. React Funct Polym 75:1–8
Amnuaypanich S, Kongchana N (2009) Natural rubber/poly(acrylic acid) semi-interpenetrating polymer network membranes for the pervaporation of water-ethanol mixtures. J Appl Polym Sci 114:3501–3509
Firdaus F, Idris MSF, Yusoff SFM (2019) Adsorption of nickel ion in aqueous using rubber-based hydrogel. J Polym Environ 27:1770–1780
Mohd Noor NF, Yusoff SFM (2020) Ultrasonic-enhanced synthesis of rubber-based hydrogel for waste water treatment: kinetic, isotherm and reusability studies. Polym Test 81:106200
Mohamed MA, Salleh WNW, Jaafar J et al. (2015) Incorporation of N-doped TiO2 nanorods in regenerated cellulose thin films fabricated from recycled newspaper as a green portable photocatalyst. Carbohydr Polym 133:429–437
Yi D, Yang H, Zhao M et al. (2017) A novel, low surface charge density, anionically modified montmorillonite for polymer nanocomposites. RSC Adv 7:5980–5988
Mahdavinia GR, Aghaie H, Sheykhloie H et al. (2013) Synthesis of CarAlg/MMt nanocomposite hydrogels and adsorption of cationic crystal violet. Carbohydr Polym 98:358–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.05.096
Purwanto M, Atmaja L, Mohamed MA et al. (2016) Biopolymer-based electrolyte membranes from chitosan incorporated with montmorillonite-crosslinked GPTMS for direct methanol fuel cells. RSC Adv 6:2314–2322
He F, Zhou Q, Wang L et al. (2019) Fabrication of a sustained release delivery system for pesticides using interpenetrating polyacrylamide/alginate/montmorillonite nanocomposite hydrogels. Appl Clay Sci 183:105347
Tekay E, Aydınoğlu D, Şen S (2019) Effective adsorption of Cr(VI) by high strength chitosan/montmorillonite composite hydrogels involving spirulina biomass/microalgae. J Polym Environ 27:1828–1842
Olad A, Zebhi H, Salari D et al. (2018) A promising porous polymer-nanoclay hydrogel nanocomposite as water reservoir material: synthesis and kinetic study. J Porous Mater 25:665–675
Jesus CRN, Molina EF, Pulcinelli SH, Santilli CV (2018) Highly controlled diffusion drug release from ureasil–poly(ethylene oxide)–Na+–montmorillonite hybrid hydrogel nanocomposites. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10:19059–19068
Alver E, Metin Aü (2012) Anionic dye removal from aqueous solutions using modified zeolite: adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies. Chem Eng J 200–202:59–67
Kargarzadeh H, Ahmad I, Abdullah I et al. (2015) Functionalized liquid natural rubber and liquid epoxidized natural rubber: a promising green toughening agent for polyester. J Appl Polym Sci 132:41292–411307
Nakason C, Kaesaman A, Supasanthitikul P (2004) The grafting of maleic anhydride onto natural rubber. Polym Test 23:35–41
Wan T, Huang R, Zhao Q et al. (2013) Synthesis of wheat straw composite superabsorbent. J Appl Polym Sci 130:3404–3410
Mittal H, Maity A, Sinha Ray S (2015) The adsorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ onto gum ghatti-grafted poly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) biodegradable hydrogel: isotherms and kinetic models. J Phys Chem B 119:2026–2039
Langmuir I (1916) The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part I. Solids. J Am Chem Soc 38:2221–2295
Freundlich HMF (1906) Over the adsorption in solution. J Phys Chem 57:385–471
Lagergren S (1898) About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances. K Sven Vetenskapsakademiens Handl 24:1–39
Ho Y, McKay G (1999) Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process Biochem 34:451–465
Zhang J, Wang L, Wang A (2007) Preparation and properties of chitosan-g-poly(acrylic acid)/montmorillonite superabsorbent nanocomposite via in situ intercalative polymerization. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:2497–2502
Azhar NHA, Rasid HM, Yusoff SFM (2016) Chemical modifications of liquid natural rubber. In: AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing LLC, New York, USA, p 030024-1–030024-6
Mohamed MA, Jaafar J, Ismail A, et al (2017) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. In: Membrane characterization. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, p 3–29
Wongthong P, Nakason C, Pan Q et al. (2013) Modification of deproteinized natural rubber via grafting polymerization with maleic anhydride. Eur Polym J 49:4035–4046
Sezgin N, Balkaya N (2016) Adsorption of heavy metals from industrial wastewater by using polyacrylic acid hydrogel. Desalin Water Treat 57:2466–2480
Liang R, Yuan H, Xi G, Zhou Q (2009) Synthesis of wheat straw-g-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent composites and release of urea from it. Carbohydr Polym 77:181–187
Carone E, Kopcak U, Gonçalves M, Nunes S (2000) In situ compatibilization of polyamide 6/natural rubber blends with maleic anhydride. Polymer 41:5929–5935
Bhullar N, Kumari K, Sud D (2018) A biopolymer-based composite hydrogel for rhodamine 6G dye removal: its synthesis, adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Iran Polym J 27:527–535
Thakur S, Pandey S, Arotiba OA (2016) Development of a sodium alginate-based organic/inorganic superabsorbent composite hydrogel for adsorption of methylene blue. Carbohydr Polym 153:34–46
Bezerra MA, Santelli RE, Oliveira EP et al. (2008) Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta 76:965–977
Shojaeimehr T, Rahimpour F, Khadivi MA, Sadeghi M (2014) A modeling study by response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) on Cu2+ adsorption optimization using light expended clay aggregate (LECA). J Ind Eng Chem 20:870–880
Bartels-Caspers C, Tusel-Langer E, Lichtenthaler RN (1992) Sorption isotherms of alcohols in zeolite-filled silicone rubber and in PVA-composite membranes. J Memb Sci 70:75–83
Senthil Kumar P (2014) Adsorption of lead(II) ions from simulated wastewater using natural waste: a kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium study. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 33:55–64
The authors would like to kindly acknowledge Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) for the research grants (GUP-2017-004) and Centre of Research and Instrumentation (CRIM) at UKM for their facilities.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Ahmad, N.H., Mohamed, M.A. & Yusoff, S.F.M. Improved adsorption performance of rubber-based hydrogel: optimisation through response surface methodology, isotherm, and kinetic studies. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 94, 322–334 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-020-05254-7
- Acrylic acid
- Methylene blue
- Response surface methodology