Synthesis of (Mn(1−x)Znx)Fe2O4 nanoparticles for magnetocaloric applications


Nowadays, one of the most important global goals in medicine is to find ways to control cancer. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia is a promising method for cancer treatment due to its localized influence and low damage to healthy tissue. Ferrite nanoparticles are widely used in this cancer modality because of their low Curie temperature, biocompatibility, and production simplicity. In this work, (Mn(1−x)Znx)Fe2O4 sol was obtained by hydrothermal synthesis from chlorides of zinc, manganese, and iron (III) at 180 °C for x = 0.1 and x = 0.2. The results of dynamic light scattering analysis have shown that the average hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles in the sol is about 70 nm. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), the powdered nanoparticles are spherical with a high degree of crystallinity. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) has confirmed single-phase formation in samples. The magnetic properties measured have indicated that the nanoparticles have reached temperatures close to the range required for deactivation of cancer cells under the influence of a variable magnetic field.


  • Manganese–zinc ferrite sol was synthesized by the hydrothermal method.

  • Manganese–zinc ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by structural, morphological, and optical studies.

  • Magnetic properties of manganese–zinc ferrite sol indicated that the nanoparticles obtained have relatively low saturation temperatures.

  • Manganese–zinc ferrite nanoparticles are prospective agents for cancer treatment applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. 1.

    Tishin MA, Shtil AA, Pyatakov AP, Zverev VI (2016) Developing antitumor magnetic hyperthermia: principles, materials and devices. Recent Pat Anti-Cancer Drug Discov 11:360–375

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Pankhurst QA, Connolly J, Jones SK, Dobson J (2003) Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine. J Phys D Appl Phys 36:167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Zverev VI, Pyatakov AP, Shtil AA, Tishin AM (2018) Novel applications of magnetic materials and technologies for medicine. J Magn Magn Mater 459:182–186

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Jeong U, Teng X, Wang Y, Yang H, Xia Y (2007) Superparamagnetic colloids: controlled synthesis and niche applications. Adv Mater 19:33–60

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Zalich MA (2005) Physical properties of magnetic macromolecule-metal and macromolecule-metal oxide nanoparticle complexes. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

  6. 6.

    Drozdov AS, Shapovalova OE, Ivanovski V, Avnir D, Vinogradov VV (2016) Entrapment of enzymes within sol–gel-derived magnetite. Chem Mater 28:2248–2253

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Drozdov AS, Volodina KV, Vinogradov VV, Vinogradov VV (2015) Biocomposites for wound-healing based on sol–gel magnetite. RSC Adv 5:82992–82997

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Lee KJ, An JH, Shin JS, Kim DH, Yoo HS, Cho CK (2011) Biostability of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles Evaluated using an in vitro cytotoxicity assays on various tumor cell lines. Curr Appl Phys 11:467–471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Sharifi I, Shokrollahi H, Amiri S (2012) Ferrite-based magnetic nanofluids used in hyperthermia applications. J Magn Magn Mater 324:903–915

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Tran N, Webster TJ (2010) Magnetic nanoparticles: biomedical applications and challenges. J Mater Chem 20:8760–8767

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Boyer C, Whittaker MR, Bulmus V, Liu J, Davis TP (2010) The design and utility of polymer-stabilized iron-oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine applications. NPG Asia Mater 2:23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Arias JL, Gallardo V, Gomez-Lopera SA, Plaza RC, Delgado AV (2001) Synthesis and characterization of poly (ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles with a magnetic core. J Control Release 77:309–321

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Mornet S, Grasset F, Portier J, Duguet E (2002) Maghemite/silica nanoparticles for biological applications. Eur Cells Mater 3:110–113

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Hans ML, Lowman AM (2002) Biodegradable nanoparticles for drug delivery and targeting. Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 6:319–327

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Carpenter EE (2001) Iron nanoparticles as potential magnetic carriers. J Magn Magn Mater 225:17–20

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Laurent S, Dutz S, Häfeli UO, Mahmoudi M (2011) Magnetic fluid hyperthermia: focus on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 166:8–23

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Dailey JP, Phillips JP, Li C, Riffle JS (1999) Synthesis of silicone magnetic fluid for use in eye surgery. J Magn Magn Mater 194:140–148

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Rutnakornpituk M, Baranauskas VV, Riffle JS, Connolly J, St Pierre T, Dailey JP (2002) Polysiloxane fluid dispersions of cobalt nanoparticles in silica spheres for use in ophthalmic applications. Eur Cells Mater 3:102–105

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Pimentel B, Caraballo-Vivas RJ, Checca NR, Zverev VI, Salakhova RT, Makarova LA, Rossi AL (2018) Threshold heating temperature for magnetic hyperthermia: controlling the heat exchange with the blocking temperature of magnetic nanoparticles. J Solid State Chem 260:34–38

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Shokrollahi H, Janghorban K (2007) Influence of additives on the magnetic properties, microstructure and densification of Mn–Zn soft ferrites. Mater Sci Eng 141:91–107

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Sun S, Zeng H, Robinson DB, Raoux S, Rice PM, Wang SX, Li G (2004) Monodisperse MFe2O4 (m = Fe, Co, Mn) nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 126:273–279

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Ivanets AI, Srivastava V, Roshchina MY, Sillanpää M, Prozorovich VG, Pankov VV (2018) Magnesium ferrite nanoparticles as a magnetic sorbent for the removal of Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ from aqueous solution. Ceram Int 44:9097–9104

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Kuklo LI, Tolstoy VP (2015) Potassium ferrate aqueous solution as a reagent for the synthesis of nanolayers via the successive ionic layer deposition method. Synthesis of Cu0.9FeOx·nH2O. Russian J Gen Chem 85:2528–2532

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Kuklo LI, Tolstoy VP (2016) Successive ionic layer deposition of Fe3O4@HxMoO4·nH2O composite nanolayers and their superparamagnetic properties. Nanosyst Phys Chem Math 7:1–5

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    He X, Zhong W, Au CT, Du Y (2013) Size dependence of the magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles prepared by thermal decomposition method. Nanoscale Res Lett 8:446

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Teja AS, Koh PY (2009) Synthesis, properties, and applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Prog Cryst Growth Charact Mater 55:22–45

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Bae DS, Kim EJ, Park SW, Han KS (2005) Synthesis and characterization of nanosized ZnxMn1-xFe2O4 powders by glycothermal process. Mater Sci Forum 486:436–439

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Zheng ZG, Zhong XC, Zhang YH, Yu HY, Zeng DC (2008) Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline ZnxMn(1−x)Fe2O4 prepared by ball milling. J Alloy Compd 466:377–382

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Yin H, Too HP, Chow GM (2005) The effects of particle size and surface coating on the cytotoxicity of nickel ferrite. Biomaterials 26:5818–5826

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Lai J, Shafi KV, Ulman A, Loos K, Yang NL, Cui MH, Locke DC (2004) Mixed iron−manganese oxide nanoparticles. J Phys Chem 108:14876–14883

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Fannin PC, Charles SW (1991) Measurement of the Nee1 relaxation of magnetic particles in the frequency range 1 kHz to 160 MHz. J Phys D Appl Phys 24:76–77

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was financially supported by the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 18-79-00269).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. V. Krivoshapkin.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Balanov, V.A., Kiseleva, A.P., Krivoshapkina, E.F. et al. Synthesis of (Mn(1−x)Znx)Fe2O4 nanoparticles for magnetocaloric applications. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 95, 795–800 (2020).

Download citation


  • Manganese–zinc ferrite nanoparticles
  • Hydrothermal synthesis
  • Magnetic fluid hyperthermia
  • Low Curie temperature
  • Cancer treatment