Sol–gel synthesis of PZT thin films on FTO glass substrates for electro-optic devices

  • Ali Shoghi
  • Hossein AbdizadehEmail author
  • Amid Shakeri
  • Mohammad Reza GolobostanfardEmail author
Original Paper: Sol-gel and hybrid materials for dielectric, electronic, magnetic and ferroelectric applications


The optoferroelectric materials have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films are fabricated on FTO glass substrates by sol–gel technique to investigate optical properties of the films. Heat treatment conditions and sol parameters are investigated to determine the optimum condition for fabricating the PZT thin films. Crack free almost pure perovskite crystal structure is formed at calcination temperature of 600 °C, for 5 min, and sol concentration of 0.33 mol/l. Increasing thickness of thin films raises the grain size and average roughness from 30 to 105 nm and 2.36 to 5.48 nm, respectively. FTIR analysis shows that 600 °C is an appropriate temperature for crystallization of PZT thin films due to the existence of metallic bond (M–O–M) in the spectrum. The films are characterized at different thicknesses for optical transmission and electrical investigation. Value of bandgap energy is estimated to be about 3.5 eV. It has been shown that the presence of rosette-type perovskite structure in the pyrochlore background has negative effect on capacitance and resistance of PZT films.


  • PZT film with almost pure perovskite structure is successfully synthesized via sol-gel method on FTO substrate.

  • Optimum condition for PZT film deposition is 0.33 M sol, heat treated at 600 °C for 5 min.

  • The average roughness value of PZT films with 4 and 16 layers are 2.36 and 5.48 nm, respectively.

  • UV-Vis spectra demonstrate high transmittance and the value of band gap energy is 3.5 eV.


PZT Sol–gel processing Thin film Perovskite structure Optical measurements 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10971_2019_5121_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
Supplementary information.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Center of Excellence for High Performance MaterialsUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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