Innovative visible light photocatalytic activity for V-doped ZrO2 structure: optical, morphological, and magnetic properties
- 30 Downloads
A new visible light sensitive photocatalysts based on Zr1−xVXO2 (x = 1, 3, 5, and 7) compositions for treatment of organic dyes in wastewater were investigated. Pure and V-doped ZrO2 samples were prepared by sol–gel techniques. The XRD results of the pure ZrO2 confirmed the formation of single phase tetragonal structure. Dopant-induced structure transition from the tetragonal to monoclinic phase. Based on SEM micrographs, mixture of spherical-nanorods architectures was formed in all samples with a volume ratio related to V concentration. Enhanced visible light absorption and an amazing red shift in the absorption edge were noticed in V doped ZrO2 samples. The magnetic properties of V doped ZrO2 exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism with varied hysteresis loops shape. Zr0.97V0.03O2 structure revealed a notable ferromagnetism with complete saturation magnetization of 0.038 emu/g and coercivity of 1200 Oe. Except Zr0.93V0.07O2 structure, all V doped ZrO2 samples showed significant photocatalytic activity when irradiated with visible light. The highest photocatalytic efficiency, ~100%, for methylene blue (MB) dye degradation was achieved through Zr0.95V0.05O2 catalyst under visible light irradiation time of 150 minutes. Vanadium played a major role in oxygen vacancies formation and separation of photo-induced electron–hole pairs which enriched the visible light photocatalytic activity.
Effective visible light photocatalysts based on V-doped ZrO2 nanostructures were synthesized by sol gel method.
Vanadium as dopant induced remarkable red shifts in the band gap energy of ZrO2.
3 wt% V-doped ZrO2 sample exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism with saturation magnetization of 0.038 emu/g and coercivity of 1200 Oe.
High photocatalytic activity, ~100%, for methylene blue dye degradation was achieved through 5 wt% V doped ZrO2 catalyst under visible light irradiation for 150 minutes.
KeywordsV-doped ZrO2 Band gap Ferromagnetism Visible light photocatalytic Oxygen vacancies
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Saravanan R, Gracia F, Stephen A (2017) In: Khan M, Pradhan D, Sohn Y (ed) Basic principles, mechanism, and challenges of photocatalysis, Springer, Cham, p 19.Google Scholar
- 9.Akilandeswari S, Rajesh G, Govindarajan D, Thirumalai K, Swaminathan M (2018) Efficacy of photoluminescence and photocatalytic properties of Mn doped ZrO2 nanoparticles by facile precipitation method. J Mater Sci 29:18258–18270Google Scholar
- 14.Gnanasekaran L, Hemamalini R, Saravanan R, Ravichandran K, Gracia F, Agarwal S, Gupta VK (2017) Synthesis and characterization of metal oxides (CeO2, CuO, NiO, Mn3O4, SnO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles as photo catalysts for degradation of textile dyes. J Photochem Photobiol B 173:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Basahel SN, Ali TT, Mokhtar M, Narasimharao K (2015) Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. Nanoscale Res Lett 10:1–12Google Scholar
- 23.Dhandapani C, Narayanasamy R, Karthick SN, Hemalatha KV, Selvam S, Hemalatha P, Kumar MS, Kirupha SD, Kim Hee-Je (2016) Drastic photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye by neodymium doped zirconium oxide as photocatalyst under visible light irradiation Optik 127:10288–10296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Flores-Moreno A, Herrera-González AM, García-Serrano J (2018) Modification of the crystal lattice and optical band gap of ZnO nanostructures by the polyelectrolytes presence. J Mater Sci 29:15604–15612Google Scholar
- 34.Anandan K, Rajesh K, Rajendran V (2017) Enhanced optical properties of spherical zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles synthesized via the facile various solvents mediated solvothermal process. J Mater Sci 28:17321–17330Google Scholar
- 40.Khataee A, Soltani RDC, Hanifehpour Y, Safarpour M, Ranjbar HG, Joo SW (2014) Synthesis and characterization of dysprosium-doped ZnO nanoparticles for photocatalysis of a textile dye under visible light irradiation. Ind Eng Chem Res 53, 1924–1932Google Scholar