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Bacterial cellulose–SiO2@TiO2 organic–inorganic hybrid membranes with self-cleaning properties


This work reports the preparation of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes with self-cleaning properties. SiO2@TiO2 (anatase) spherical nanocomposites (around 50 nm in diameter) were prepared by sol–gel process and were successfully immobilized into the BC membrane, in wet and dry states, by post-grafting method, following two different methodologies: dip-coating and spin-coating. Characterization techniques included Raman scattering, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies (EDS), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity was higher in the BC membrane in the wet state, presenting a good self-cleaning performance (fast methyl violet 2B dye decomposition in 30 min). The functional BC membranes with self-cleaning properties also presented high resistance to washing, high chemical stability, and the original features (color and texture) were maintained.


  • Development of novel functional bacterial cellulose membranes with self-cleaning properties.

  • Decomposition of methyl violet 2B dye in solution through a photocatalytic process.

  • High resistance to washing (self-cleaning performance).

  • Original features of the membranes (color and texture) maintained.

  • Significant reduction of cleaning actions, allowing a reduction in costs and greater durability of the bacterial cellulose membrane.

  • Environmentally friendly cellulose membrane.

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This work has been financially supported by Fundação de Amparo à pesquisa do estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), through project 2015/12908-2. ASM is thankful to FAPESP for a grant. The authors thank André Tobello Foundation for effering the strain Gluconacetobacter xylinum (ATCC23760) LNNano-CNPEM (Campinas, Brazil) for the use of the JEOL-JEM 2100 F STEM microscope and Dr. Sajjad Ullah for help in XRFA measurements.

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Correspondence to S. J. L. Ribeiro.

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Monteiro, A.S., Domeneguetti, R.R., Wong Chi Man, M. et al. Bacterial cellulose–SiO2@TiO2 organic–inorganic hybrid membranes with self-cleaning properties. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 89, 2–11 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-018-4744-5

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  • Functional bacterial cellulose membrane
  • SiO2@TiO2 (anatase) nanocomposites
  • Photocatalytic activity
  • Self-cleaning properties
  • Dip-coating
  • Spin-coating