Combining 3D printing and electrospinning for preparation of pain-relieving wound-dressing materials
- 259 Downloads
Pain is already known to cause delays in wound healing. Therefore, providing suitable therapeutic solutions for less painful wound healing should attract significantly more attention in the development of future novel wound care solutions. In this study, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac sodium (DCS) and the local anesthetic lidocaine (LID) were combined in wound-dressing materials prepared using two different techniques. We compared the release of the mentioned drugs from a 3D bioprinted carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based scaffold with their release from an electrospun CMC-based nano-mesh. As a well-defined and controlled drug release is of great importance for any material to be used in the clinics, we have put a lot of effort into a systematic evaluation of both prepared materials, using the two different techniques. For this purpose, we used different methods to characterize their physico–chemical, structural and morphological properties. Further, the influence of the respective preparation procedures were tested on the release profile and biocompatibility with human skin cells. Both prepared materials were proven biocompatible. We have also shown that the drug release of both incorporated drugs was affected significantly by the preparation method. The resulting release performances of the respective materials were shown to benefit the treatment of specific wounds. Finally, several advantageous properties could be achieved by combining both preparation techniques for the preparation of a single dressing.
KeywordsWound dressing 3D bioprinting electrospinning controlled drug release diclofenac lidocaine
We acknowledge the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency for Research Core Funding nos. P2-0118 and P3-0036, and for the financial support through the Project no. Z2-8168.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 9.Ventola CL (2014) Medical applications for 3D printing: current and projected uses. Pharm Ther 39(10):704Google Scholar
- 16.Hay ED (2013) Cell biology of extracellular matrix. Springer Science & Business Media, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 31.Tickle J (2012) Effective management of exudate with AQUACEL extra. Br J Community Nurs Suppl S38:S40–36Google Scholar
- 32.Petrulyte S (2008) Advanced textile materials and biopolymers in wound management. Dan Med Bull 55(1):72–77Google Scholar
- 33.O’Donoghue JM, O’Sullivan ST, Beausang ES, Panchal JI, O’Shaughnessy M, O’Connor TP (1997) Calcium alginate dressings promote healing of split skin graft donor sites. Acta Chir Plast 39(2):53–55Google Scholar
- 35.Manizate F, Fuller A, Gendics C, Lantis 2nd JC (2012) A prospective, single-center, nonblinded, comparative, postmarket clinical evaluation of a bovine-derived collagen with ionic silver dressing versus a carboxymethylcellulose and ionic silver dressing for the reduction of bioburden in variable-etiology, bilateral lower-extremity wounds. Adv Skin Wound Care 25(5):220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Solowiej K, Upton D (2010) Managing stress and pain to prevent patient discomfort, distress and delayed wound healing. Nurs Times 106(16):21–23Google Scholar
- 39.Fogh K, Andersen MB, Bischoff-Mikkelsen M, Bause R, Zutt M, Schilling S, Schmutz J-L, Borbujo J, Jimenez JA, Cartier H, Jørgensen B (2012) Clinically relevant pain relief with an ibuprofen-releasing foam dressing: results from a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial in exuding, painful venous leg ulcers. Wound Repair Regen 20(6):815–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.Wright KD, Shirey J (2003) A pain management protocol for wound care. Ostomy Wound Manag 49(5):18–20Google Scholar
- 47.van de Loosdrecht AA, Beelen RH, Ossenkoppele GJ, Broekhoven MG, Langenhuijsen MM (1994) A tetrazolium-based colorimetric MTT assay to quantitate human monocyte mediated cytotoxicity against leukemic cells from cell lines and patients with acute myeloid leukemia. J Immunol Methods 174(1–2):311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 73.Mizrahi A, Moore GE (1971) Role of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and hydroxyethyl starch in hematopoietic cell line cultures. Appl Microbiol 21(4):754–757Google Scholar
- 74.Baker WA, Chang T, Hancock RR, Walczak WJ (2009) Coated cell culture surfaces and methods for producing the same. Google Patents, US20090227027A1Google Scholar