Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 82, Issue 3, pp 682–691 | Cite as

Mechanical and tribological behavior of sol–gel TiO2–CdO films measured at the microscale levels

  • Francisco Javier Flores-Ruiz
  • Carolina Janani Diliegros-Godines
  • F. Alejandro Hernández-García
  • Rebeca Castanedo-Pérez
  • Gerardo Torres-Delgado
  • Esteban Broitman
Original Paper: Industrial and technological applications of sol-gel and hybrid materials


In this work, we present a mechanical and tribological study at the microscale of sol–gel TiO2–CdO films, which are used in photocatalytic applications. The films were deposited as a good-quality polycrystalline material with majority of CdO or CdTiO3 phases depending on their Ti/Cd concentration ratios. Films with the majority of CdTiO3 phase presented the highest hardness and lowest plastic deformation during the indentation tests. The evolution of wear, friction coefficient, and roughness on the films was quantitatively studied by multiple-passes measurements on a depth-sensing instrumented indentation system. These measurements allowed us to observe the films’ wear mechanisms and correlate them with their microstructure and mechanical properties. To compare the crystal structure, mechanical properties and tribological behavior of these films, we also analyzed sol–gel CdO and TiO2 films deposited under similar conditions.

Graphical Abstract

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CdTiO3 Sol–gel Mechanical properties Tribological behavior Scanning probe microscopy 



This work was supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) under Project Fomix 2012-192880 and project CB-2008-106912. The authors thank to CONACyT for the fellowship awarded to F. A. Hernández-García. The authors also thank to SEP-PRODEP No. 511-6/17-605 for the postdoctoral fellowship awarded to C. J. Diliegros-Godines. Esteban Broitman acknowledges financial support from the Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linköping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU No 2009 00971).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Javier Flores-Ruiz
    • 1
  • Carolina Janani Diliegros-Godines
    • 2
  • F. Alejandro Hernández-García
    • 3
  • Rebeca Castanedo-Pérez
    • 3
  • Gerardo Torres-Delgado
    • 3
  • Esteban Broitman
    • 4
  1. 1.CONACYT-Instituto de FísicaBenemérita Universidad Autónoma de PueblaPueblaMexico
  2. 2.Instituto de FísicaBenemérita Universidad Autónoma de PueblaPueblaMexico
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N.Unidad Querétaro. Lib. Norponiente 2000QuerétaroMexico
  4. 4.Thin Film Physics Division, IFMLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden

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