Preparation of Bragg mirrors on silica optical fibers and inner walls of silica capillaries by employing the sol–gel method, and titanium and silicon alkoxides


The paper presents results on sol–gel preparation and characterization of multilayered coatings, Bragg mirrors, on silica slides, silica fibers, and inner walls of silica capillaries. In the coatings titania was employed for high-index layers and silica for low-index ones. Coatings with up to three pairs of titania and silica layers have been fabricated from alkoxide input sols. A sol based on tetramethylorthosilicate with RW = 1.75 and tetramethylorthosilicate concentration of 2 mol/l for used for silica layers. A sol of titanium butoxide with RW and alkoxide concentration of 1.58 and 0.315 mol/l, respectively, was employed for titania layers. Modified dip-coating techniques have been developed for the application of gel layers from the sols onto fibers or inside silica capillaries. Single gel layers were dried at 200 °C, final coatings were heat-treated at 450 °C. Relative velocities of substrates and sols have been controlled to obtain layers with an optical thickness of about 140 nm. Prepared single layers have been characterized by measuring their thicknesses by optical profilometry and refractive indices of titania layers by spectral ellipsometry. Homogeneity and appearance of multilayered coatings have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and morphology of coatings by X-ray spectrometry. Optical properties of coatings on silica slides have been determined from their UV–VIS-NIR transmission and reflection spectra. Transmission optical properties of coated optical fibers and capillaries have been characterized by angular distributions of the output power from the fibers at a wavelength of 650 nm and by measuring their transmission spectra. Obtained results show that Bragg mirrors fabricated on silica slides can exhibit a minimal transmittance of about 17 % around a wavelength of 650 nm and that prepared fibers and capillaries provided with Bragg-mirror coatings are capable of guiding light and have lowest transmission losses around a wavelength of 550 nm.

Graphical Abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17


  1. 1.

    Mielke M. (2013) Photonics applied: industrial lasers: the hole story: femtosecond manufacturing improves automobile fuel efficiency Laser Focus World 49, 6

  2. 2.

    Harrington J.A. (1992) Laser power delivery in infrared fiber optics, Proc. SPIE 1649, Optical Fibers in Medicine VII, 14–22

  3. 3.

    Cregan R, Mangan B, Knight J, Birks T (1999) Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air. Science 285:1537

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Shephard J, Jones J, Hand D, Bouwmans G, Knight J, Russell P, Mangan B (2004) High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers. Opt Express 12:717–723

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Urich A, Maier R, Mangan BJ, Renshaw S, Knight JC, Hand D, Shephard J (2012) Delivery of high energy Er: YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre. Opt Express 20:6677–6684

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bise RT, Trevor DJ (2005) Sol-gel derived microstructured fiber: Fabrication and characterization, Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Technical Digest. OFC/NFOEC. doi:10.1109/OFC.2005.192772

  7. 7.

    Trevor DJ (2005) Fabrication of large near net shapes of fiber optic quality silica. In: Sakka S (ed) Handbook of Sol-Gel Science and Technology: Processing, characterization and applications. Kluwer Academic, Boston, pp 27–65

  8. 8.

    El Hamzaoui H, Bigot L, Bouwmans G, Razdobreev I, Bouazaoui M, Capoen B (2011) From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a sol-gel polymeric route. Opt Mater Express 1:234–242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Temelkuran B, Hart SD, Benoit G, Joannopoulos JD, Fink Y (2002) Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission. Nature 420:650–653

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Kuriki K, Shapira O, Hart S, Benoit G, Kuriki Y, Viens J, Bayindir M, Joannopoulos J, Fink Y (2004) Hollow multilayer photonic bandgap fibers for NIR applications. Opt Express 12:1510–1517

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Likhachev ME, Semjonov S, Bubnov MM, Dianov EM, Khopin VF, Salganskii MY, Gurjanov M, Gurjanov A, Jamier R, Viale P (2006) Development and study of bragg fibres with a large mode field and low optical losses. Quant Electron 36:581–586

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Matějec V, Kašík I, Podrazký O, Aubrecht J, Frank M, Jelínek M, Kubeček V (2013) Preparation and characterization of Bragg fibers with air cores for transfer of laser radiation. In: Kalli K, Kanka J, Mendex A (eds) Micro-structured and specialty optical fibres II. Proceedings of SPIE, vol 8775. SPIE, Bellingham, WA, Article 877508, p 1–11

  13. 13.

    Matějec V, Podrazký O, Kašík I, Frank M, Jelínek M, Kubeček V (2015) Comparison of characteristics of bragg fibers with silica and air cores, Proc. SPIE, vol 9450. Photonics, Devices, and Systems VI, Article 94500Y, p 1–8

  14. 14.

    Benabid F, Gerome F, Debord B, Alharbi M (2014) Fiber for fiber lasers: Kagome PC fiber goes to extremes for ultrashort-pulse lasers, Laser Focus World 50, 10

  15. 15.

    Emaury F, Dutin CF, Saraceno CJ, Trant M, Heckl OH, Wang YY, Schriber C, Gerome F, Südmeyer T, Benabid F, Keller U (2013) Beam delivery and pulse compression to sub-50 fs of a modelocked thin-disk laser in a gas-filled Kagome-type HC-PCF fiber. Opt Express 21:4986–4994

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Hill KO, Meltz G (1997) Fiber bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview. J Lightwave Technol 15:1263–1276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    James SW, Tatam RP (2003) Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application. Meas Sci Technol 14:R49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Chiavaioli F, Biswas P, Trono C, Jana S, Bandyopadhyay S, Basumallick N, Giannetti A, Tombelli S, Bera S, Mallick A (2015) Sol–gel-based Titania–Silica thin film overlay for long period fiber grating-based biosensors. Anal Chem 87:12024–12031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Almeida RM, Marques AC, Chiasera A, Chiappini A, Ferrari M (2007) Rare-earth doped photonic crystal microcavities prepared by sol–gel. J Non-Cryst Solids 353:490–493

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Gonçalves MC, Fortes LM, Almeida RM, Chiasera A, Chiappini A, Ferrari M (2009) 3-D rare earth-doped colloidal photonic crystals. Opt Mater 31:1315–1318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Almeida RM, Fortes LM, Gonçalves MC (2011) Sol–gel derived photonic bandgap coatings for solar control. Opt Mater 33:1867–1871

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Chiappini A, Chiasera A, Berneschi S, Armellini C, Carpentiero A, Mazzola M, Moser E, Varas S, Righini GC, Ferrari M (2011) Sol–gel-derived photonic structures: fabrication, assessment, and application. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 60:408–425

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Qu H, Skorobogatiy M (2012) Resonant bio-and chemical sensors using low-refractive-index-contrast liquid-core bragg fibers. Sens Actuators B: Chemical 161:261–268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Kubeckova M, Sedlar M, Matejec V (1992) Characterization of sol-gel derived coatings on optical fibers. J Non-Cryst Solids 147:404–408

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Barton I, Matejec V, Mrazek J, Podrazky O (2015) Preparation and characterization of coatings with a high reflectivity on planar substrates and inside silica tubes, Proc. SPIE Proc. SPIE, vol 9450. Photonics, Devices, and Systems VI, Article 945019, p 1–8

  26. 26.

    Schneller T, Waser R, Kosec M, Payne D (2013) Chemical solution deposition of functional oxide thin films. Springer, Wien, Austria, pp 233–261. Chapter 10, Dip-coating

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Matveev AN (1988) Optics. Mir Publishers, Moscow, Russia

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Dirk P, Philippe SF (2003) Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review. J Phys D Appl Phys 36:1850

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Vishwas M, Sharma SK, Narasimha Rao K, Mohan S, Gowda KVA, Chakradhar RPS (2009) Optical, dielectric and morphological studies of sol–gel derived nanocrystalline TiO2 films. Spectrochim Acta Mol Biomol Spectrosc 74:839–842

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Sta I, Jlassi M, Hajji M, Boujmil MF, Jerbi R, Kandyla M, Kompitsas M, Ezzaouia H (2014) Structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared by spin coating. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 72:421–427

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Kim DJ, Hahn SH, Oh SH, Kim EJ (2002) Influence of calcination temperature on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared by sol–gel dip coating. Mater Lett 57:355–360

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Polyanskiv MN, Refractive index database. Accessed 19 May 2016.

  33. 33.

    Almeida RM, Clara Gonçalves M, Portal S (2004) Sol–gel photonic bandgap materials and structures. J Non-Cryst Solids 345-346:562–569

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Abdelmalek F, Lacroix M, Chovelon J, Jaffrezic-Renault N, Berkova D, Matejec V, Kasik I, Chomat M, Gagnaire H (1999) Consequences of TiO 2 doping on the optical properties of porous silica layers coated on silica optical fibers. Thin Solid Films 340:280–287

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Freude W, Sharma A (1985) Refractive-index profile and modal dispersion prediction for a single-mode optical waveguide from its far-field radiation pattern. J Lightwave Technol 3:628–634

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Karasiński P, Tyszkiewicz C, Domanowska A, Michalewicz A, Mazur J (2015) Low loss, long time stable sol–gel derived silica–titania waveguide films. Mater Lett 143:5–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like thank to the Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering of the University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague for SEM measurements and Institute of Geology of The Czech Science Academy, v.v.i. for X-ray measurements. This research was financially supported by the Czech Science Foundation (contract 16-10019S).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ivo Barton.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Barton, I., Matejec, V., Jan Mrazek et al. Preparation of Bragg mirrors on silica optical fibers and inner walls of silica capillaries by employing the sol–gel method, and titanium and silicon alkoxides. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 81, 867–879 (2017).

Download citation


  • Multilayered coatings
  • Silica and titania layers
  • Alkoxide sol–gel method
  • Silica fiber
  • Silica capillary Transmission characteristics