A novel technology for the preparation of bioceramic foams (BF) using a simple and economic procedure is presented. This technology combines two conventional methods to produce a tridimensional macroporous structure by using a sol–gel route, submitted afterward to a microwave treatment and thermal annealing. The use of agri-waste products on this procedure, such as egg shell and white egg recycle, represents an interesting way for waste management while developing potential commercial biomaterials. The use of egg shell as eco-compatible reactant instead of commercial ones and the egg white as foaming agent to produce a tridimensional macroporous structures has been optimized by using a sol–gel route. The crystalline phase and quantitative phase composition has been studied by Rietveld refinement and the optimization of the foaming process and determination of interconnected porosity by scanning electron microscopy, Hg porosimetry and X-ray micro-CT imaging. Our results show that BF samples showed a composition of 60 wt% HA (hydroxyapatite) and 40 wt% β-TCP (β-tricalcium phosphate) with a total porosity of approx. 70 % and a porosity ranging from 5 to 300 μm. These features indicate that BF samples are ideal for bone regeneration, and they are produced in an easy and environmental friendly viable process.
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The authors would like to acknowledge the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO), Spain, for funding through projects MAT2012-35556 and CSO2010-11384-E (Agening Network of Excellence) and Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo (AECID). Authors would like to thank M. Chevalier from Dpto. de Radiología of Física Médica of Universidad Complutense de Madrid for their technical support on X-ray μ-CT measurements.
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Sánchez-Salcedo, S., Vila, M., Diaz, A. et al. Synthesis of HA/β-TCP bioceramic foams from natural products. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 79, 160–166 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-016-4038-8
- Regeneration bone defects
- Biological waste