Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 298–308 | Cite as

Low-temperature combustion synthesis of cobalt magnesium ferrite magnetic nanoparticles: effects of fuel-to-oxidizer ratio and sintering temperature

  • C. O. Ehi-EromoseleEmail author
  • B. I. Ita
  • E. E. J. Iweala
Original Paper


The effects of glycine-to-nitrate molar ratio (G/N) and sintering temperature of 600 °C on the solution combustion synthesis of nanocrystalline Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4 (CMFO) are reported. The structural, morphological and magnetic properties of CMFO could be controlled by using different combinations of glycine fuel and metal nitrates and also sintering temperature. Thermodynamic considerations of the combustion processes show that the exothermicity, adiabatic flame temperature and the amount of gases released increase with increase in G/N. The auto-combusted and sintered powders obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis–differential scanning calorimetry and vibrating scanning magnetometer measurements. SEM images of CMFO showed that the G/N ratio and sintering temperature had pronounced effect on the microstructure regarding density and porosity. The magnetization, crystallite sizes and crystallinity of the CMFO spinel phase increased with increase in G/N ratio and sintering temperature. Raman spectroscopic analysis showed that only the fuel-rich sample gave the five Raman active modes characteristic of a spinel structure. The obtained results were also discussed in comparison with ferrite system formed by different synthesis processes.

Graphical Abstract

XRD of CMFO auto-combustion powders prepared with different G/N ratios: (a) G/N = 2.22, (b) G/N = 1.48 and (c) G/N = 0.74.


Solution combustion synthesis Glycine-to-nitrate ratio Sintering temperature Adiabatic flame temperature Magnetism 



This work would not have been possible without the visiting research grant given to Mr. Ehi-Eromosele C.O. by the International Centre for Materials Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, India. The authors would like to thank the Department of Materials Engineering, India Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, for providing TGA and VSM facilities. We also like to thank Professor Chandra Srivastava and his student, Mr. Mahander Singh for helping with the VSM analysis.


  1. 1.
    Deraz NM, Shaban S (2009) Optimization of catalytic, surface and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline manganese ferrite. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 86(1):173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hu P, Yang H, Pan DA, Wang H, Tian JJ, Zhang SG, Wang XF, Volinsky AA (2010) Heat treatment effects on microstructure and magnetic properties of Mn–Zn ferrite powders. J Magn Magn Mater 322:173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shah SA, Asdi MH, Hashmi MU, Umar MF, Awan S (2012) Thermoresponsive copolymer coated MnFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia therapy and controlled drug delivery. Mater Chem Phys 137:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kumar ER, Jayaprakash R, Seehra MS, Prakash T, Kumar S (2013) Effect of α-Fe2O3 phase on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles. J Phys Chem Solids 74:943–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salunkhe AB, Khot VM, Phadatare MR, Pawar SH (2012) Combustion synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles—influence of fuel to oxidizer ratio. J Alloy Compd 514:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Salunkhe AB, Khot VM, Phadatare MR, Thorat ND, Joshi RS, Yadav HM, Pawar SH (2014) Low temperature combustion synthesis and magnetostructural properties of Co–Mn nanoferrites. J Magn Magn Mater 352:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Joshi HH, Pandya PB, Modi KB, Jani NN, Baldha GJ, Kulkarni RG (1997) Magnetic properties of magnesium–cobalt ferrites synthesised by co-precipitation method. Bull Mater Sci 20(1):93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nlebedim IC, Hadimani RL, Prozorov R, Jiles DC (2013) Structural, magnetic, and magnetoelastic properties of magnesium substituted cobalt ferrite. J Appl Phys 113:17A928Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Franco A Jr, Silva FC, Zapf VS (2012) High temperature magnetic properties of Co1−xMgxFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared by forced hydrolysis method. J Appl Phys 111:07B530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhasker SU, Kumar YV, Ramana Reddy MV (2012) Preparation and characterization of cobalt magnesium nano ferrites using auto-combustion method. Adv Mater Res 584:280–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ghosh SK, Prakash A, Datta S, Roy SK, Basu D (2010) Effect of fuel characteristics on synthesis of calcium hydroxyapatite by solution combustion route. Bull Mater Sci 33(1):7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ghosh SK, Nandi SK, Kundu B, Datta S, De DK, Roy SK, Basu D (2008) In vivo response of porous hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate prepared by aqueous solution combustion method and comparison with bioglass scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res B 86:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Han Y, Li S, Wang X, Chen X (2004) Synthesis and sintering of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders by citric acid sol–gel combustion method. Mater Res Bull 39:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tahmasebi K, Paydar MH (2008) The effect of starch addition on solution combustion synthesis of Al2O3–ZrO2 nanocomposite powder using urea as fuel. Mater Chem Phys 109:156–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khot VM, Salunkhe AB, Phadatare MR, Pawar SH (2012) Formation, microstructure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline MgFe2O4. Mater Chem Phys 132:782–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Toniolo JC, Lima MD, Takimi AS, Bergmann CP (2005) Synthesis of alumina powders by the glycine–nitrate combustion process. Mater Res Bull 40(3):561–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sharma SK, Pitale SS, Malik M, Dubey RN, Qureshi MS, Ojha S (2010) Influence of fuel/oxidizer ratio on lattice parameters and morphology of combustion synthesized ZnO powders. Phys B 405(3):866–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dean JA (ed) (1998) Lange’s handbook of chemistry, 15th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ismail I, Hashim M, Ibrahim IR, Nazlan R, Mohd Idris F, Shafie SE, Manap M (2013) Crystallinity and magnetic properties dependence on sintering temperature and soaking time of mechanically alloyed nanometer-grain Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4. J Magn Magn Mater 333:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kumar ER, Jayaprakash R, Kumar S (2014) The role of annealing temperature and bio-template (egg white) on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of manganese substituted MFe2O4 (M = Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) nanoparticles. J Magn Magn Mater 351:70–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kumar ER, Jayaprakash R, Kumar S (2014) Effect of annealing temperature on structural and magnetic properties of manganese substituted NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. Mater Sci Semicond Process 17:173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Waqas H, Qureshi AH, Shahzad M (2015) Effect of firing temperature on the electromagnetic properties of electronic transformer cores developed by using nanosized Mn–Zn ferrite powders. Acta Metall Sin (Engl Lett) 28(2):159–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Deraz NM (2010) Glycine-assisted fabrication of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite system. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 88(2):103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hu P, Yang H, Pan D, Wang H, Tian J, Zhang S, Wang X, Volinsky AA (2010) Heat treatment effects on microstructure and magnetic properties of Mn–Zn ferrite powders. J Magn Magn Mater 322:173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yan C-H, Xu Z-G, Cheng F-X, Wang Z-M, Sun L-D, Liao C-S, Jia J-T (1999) Nanophased CoFe2O4 prepared by combustion method. Solid State Commun 111(5):287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee SW, Kim SJ, Kim CS (2006) Superexchange interactions in MgFe2O4. J Korean Phys Soc 48:583–590Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    O’Handley RC (2000) Modern magnetic materials: principles and applications. Wiley, New York, p 129Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chandradass J, Jadhav AH, Kim KH, Kim H (2012) Influence of processing methodology on the structural and magnetic behavior of MgFe2O4 nanopowders. J Alloy Compd 517:164–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang Z, Lazor P, Saxena SK, O’Neil HSC (2002) High pressure Raman spectroscopy of Ferrite MgFe2O4. Mater Res Bull 37:1589–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gillot B, Jemmali F, Rousset A (1983) Infrared studies on the behavior in oxygen of cobalt-substituted magnetites: comparison with zinc-substituted magnetites. J Solid State Chem 50:138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lazarević ZŽ, Jovalekić Č, Sekulić D, Slankamenac M, Romčević M, Milutinović A, Romčević NŽ (2012) Characterization of nanostructured spinel NiFe2O4 obtained by soft mechanochemical synthesis. Sci Sinter 44:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sedlacik M, Pavlinek V, Peer P, Filip P (2014) Tailoring the magnetic properties and magnetorheological behavior of spinel nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite by varying annealing temperature. Dalton Trans 43(18):6919–6924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sivakumar N, Narayanasamy A, Chinnasamy CN, Jeyadevan B (2007) Influence of thermal annealing on the dielectric properties and electrical relaxation behaviour in nanostructured CoFe2O4 ferrite. J Phys Condens Matter 19(38):386201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nlebedim IC, Melikhov Y, Jiles DC (2014) Temperature dependence of magnetic properties of heat treated cobalt ferrite. J Appl Phys 115:043903CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. O. Ehi-Eromosele
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. I. Ita
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. E. J. Iweala
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Pure and Applied ChemistryUniversity of CalabarCalabarNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria

Personalised recommendations