Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 236–244 | Cite as

Hard X-rays and soft-matter: processing of sol–gel films from a top down route

  • Plinio Innocenzi
  • Luca Malfatti
  • Benedetta Marmiroli
  • Paolo Falcaro
Original Paper


A current trend of applied research in the field of nanomaterials is the integration of bottom up and top down fabrication methods. Sol–gel chemistry is widely applied to obtain different functional materials from a bottom up route, especially in the case of thin films. To fabricate devices based on sol–gel films, which include nanocomposites and mesoporous ordered materials, application of lithography technologies is mandatory. Among the different lithographic approaches, photolithography is widely used by companies using micro-fabrication processes. In this context, photolithography is a typical top down method that requires to be integrated as much as possible with deposition of thin films from a liquid phase. Recently we have developed a new integrated fabrication method which uses high energy photons, such as hard X-rays, which typically have energies between 2.5 and 12 keV, for the manipulation and production of a large variety of functional materials and devices. In the present review a short overview of such achievements is presented.


Sol–gel Films Lithography Self-assembly Mesoporous Deep X-ray Microfabrication 



The RAS is kindly acknowledged for funding through CRP 26449 P.O.R. FSE 2007–2013, L.R.7/2007.


  1. 1.
    Brinker CJ, Scherer GW (1990) Sol–gel science. Academic Press, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Van de Leest RE (1995) Appl Surf Sci 86:278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bohannan EW, Gao XR, Gaston KR, Doss CD, Sotiriou-Leventis C, Leventis N (2002) J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 23:235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ma JH, Wu GM, Shen J, Wang J (2001) J Inorg Mater 16:1174Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Soppera A, Feullade M, Croutxé-Barghon C, Carré C (2005) Prog Solid State Chem 33:233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Innocenzi P, Brusatin G (2004) J Non-Cryst Solids 333:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Costacurta S, Malfatti L, Falcaro P, Innocenzi P (2007) J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 44:59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kang DJ, Park GU, Lee HH, Park HY, Park J-U (2013) Curr Appl Phys 13:1732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brusatin G, Della Giustina G, Guglielmi M, Innocenzi P (2006) Prog Solid State Chem 34:223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asahi Glass Co. Ltd. (1993) Jpn Pat 05080205-AGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hitachi Ltd. (1992) Eur Pat Appl No. 0533030 A2Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kintaka K, Nishii J, Tohge N (2000) Appl Opt 39:489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lasagni AS, Seyler M, Holzapfel C, Maier WF, Mucklich F (2005) Adv Mater 17:2228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Innocenzi P, Malfatti L, Kidchob T, Costacurta S, Falcaro P, Marmiroli B, Cacho-Nerin F, Amenitsch H (2011) J Synchrotron Radiat 18:280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brusatin G, Della Giustina G, Romanato F, Guglielmi M (2008) Nanotechnology 19:175306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tirumala VR, Divan R, Mancini DC, Caneba GT (2005) Microsyst Technol 11:347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hikemet RAM, Thomassen R (2003) Adv Mater 15:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kruk M, Jaroniec M, Sakamoto Y, Terasaki O, Ryoo R, Ko H (2000) J Phys Chem B 104:292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Werst DW, Vinokur EI (2001) J Phys Chem B 105:1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Falcaro P, Innocenzi P (2011) J Sol–Gel Sci Technol 57:236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cheng Y, Kuo N-Y, Su H (1997) Rev Sci Instrum 68:2163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang J, Morin C, Li L, Hitchcock AP, Scholl A, Doran A (2009) J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenom 170:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saile V, Wallrabe U, Tabata O, Korvink JG (2009) Advanced micro and nanosystems, LIGA and its application. WILEY-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weon BM, Kwon YB, Won KH, Yoo J, Je JH, Li M, Hahn JH (2010) Chem Phys Chem 11:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Falcaro P, Costacurta S, Malfatti L, Buso D, Patelli A, Schiavuta P, Piccinini M, Grenci G, Marmiroli B, Amenitsch H, Innocenzi P (2011) ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Costacurta S, Malfatti L, Patelli A, Falcaro P, Amenitsch H, Marmiroli N, Grenci G, Piccinini M, Innocenzi P (2010) Plasma Process Polym 7:459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Innocenzi P, Brusatin G (2001) Chem Mater 13:3126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Innocenzi P, Falcaro P, Schergna S, Maggini M, Menna E, Amenitsch H, Grosso D, Soler Illia G, Sanchez C (2004) J Mater Chem 14:1838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pinna A, Malfatti L, Piccinini M, Falcaro P, Innocenzi P (2012) J Synchrotron Radiat 19:586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cataldo F (1993) Fuller Sci Technol 8:577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fam DWH, Palaniappan A, Tok AIY, Liedberg B, Moochhala SM (2011) Sens Actuators B 157:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dumée LF, Sears K, Marmiroli B, Amenitsch H, Duan X, Lamb R, Buso D, Huynh C, Hawkins S, Kentish S, Duke M, Gray S, Innocenzi P, Hill AJ, Falcaro P (2013) Carbon 51:427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Innocenzi P, Kidchob T, Costacurta S, Falcaro P, Marmiroli B, Cacho-Nerin F, Amenitsch H (2010) Soft Matter 6:3172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Innocenzi P, Malfatti L, Kidchob T, Costacurta S, Falcaro P, Piccinini M, Marcelli A, Morini P, Sali D, Amenitsch H (2007) J Phys Chem C 111:5345Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Soler-Illia GJAA, Innocenzi P (2006) Chem Eur J 12:4478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Soler-Illia GJAA, Crepaldi EL, Grosso D, Sanchez C (2003) Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 8:109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Innocenzi P, Kidchob T, Falcaro P, Takahashi M (2008) Chem Mater 20:607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Falcaro P, Costacurta S, Malfatti L, Takahashi M, Kidchob T, Casula MF, Piccinini M, Marcelli A, Marmiroli B, Amenitsch H, Schiavuta P, Innocenzi P (2008) Adv Mater 20:1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Falcaro P, Malfatti L, Kidchob T, Giannini G, Falqui A, Casula MF, Amenitsch H, Marmiroli B, Grenci G, Innocenzi P (2009) Chem Mater 21:2055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Doherty CM, Gao Y, Marmiroli B, Amenitsch H, Lisi F, Malfatti L, Okada K, Takahashi M, Hill AJ, Innocenzi P, Falcaro P (2012) J Mater Chem 22:16191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Han SH, Doherty CM, Marmiroli B, Jo HJ, Buso D, Patelli A, Schiavuta P, Innocenzi P, Lee YM, Thornton AW, Hill AJ, Falcaro P (2013) Small 9:2277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Falcaro P, Malfatti L, Vaccari L, Amenitsch H, Marmiroli B, Grenci G, Innocenzi P (2009) Adv Mater 21:4932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Costacurta S, Falcaro P, Malfatti L, Marongiu D, Marmiroli B, Cacho-Nerin F, Amenitsch H, Kirkby N, Innocenzi P (2011) ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 27:3898Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Malfatti L, Falcaro P, Pinna A, Lasio B, Casula MF, Loche D, Falqui A, Marmiroli B, Amenitsch H, Sanna R, Mariani A, Innocenzi P (2013) ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. doi: 10.1021/am4027407
  45. 45.
    Malfatti L, Marongiu D, Costacurta S, Falcaro P, Amenitsch H, Marmiroli B, Grenci G, Casula M, Innocenzi P (2010) Chem Mater 22:2132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Malfatti L, Falcaro P, Marmiroli B, Amenitsch H, Piccinini M, Falqui A, Innocenzi P (2011) Nanoscale 3:3760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pinna A, Lasio B, Piccinini M, Marmiroli B, Amenitsch H, Falcaro P, Tokudome Y, Malfatti L, Innocenzi P (2013) ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:3168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dimitrakakis C, Marmiroli B, Amenitsch H, Malfatti L, Innocenzi P, Grenci G, Vaccari L, Hill AJ, Ladewig BP, Hill MR, Falcaro P (2012) Chem Commun 48:7483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Faustini M, Marmiroli B, Malfatti L, Louis B, Krins N, Falcaro P, Grenci G, Laberty-Robert C, Amenitsch H, Innocenzi P, Grosso D (2011) J Mater Chem 21:3597CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Plinio Innocenzi
    • 1
  • Luca Malfatti
    • 1
  • Benedetta Marmiroli
    • 2
  • Paolo Falcaro
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratorio di Scienza dei Materiali e Nanotecnologie (LMNT), D.A.D.U.Università di Sassari and CR-INSTMAlgheroItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Inorganic ChemistryGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  3. 3.Division of Materials Science and EngineeringCSIROClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations