Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology

, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 236–244 | Cite as

Hard X-rays and soft-matter: processing of sol–gel films from a top down route

  • Plinio Innocenzi
  • Luca Malfatti
  • Benedetta Marmiroli
  • Paolo Falcaro
Original Paper

Abstract

A current trend of applied research in the field of nanomaterials is the integration of bottom up and top down fabrication methods. Sol–gel chemistry is widely applied to obtain different functional materials from a bottom up route, especially in the case of thin films. To fabricate devices based on sol–gel films, which include nanocomposites and mesoporous ordered materials, application of lithography technologies is mandatory. Among the different lithographic approaches, photolithography is widely used by companies using micro-fabrication processes. In this context, photolithography is a typical top down method that requires to be integrated as much as possible with deposition of thin films from a liquid phase. Recently we have developed a new integrated fabrication method which uses high energy photons, such as hard X-rays, which typically have energies between 2.5 and 12 keV, for the manipulation and production of a large variety of functional materials and devices. In the present review a short overview of such achievements is presented.

Keywords

Sol–gel Films Lithography Self-assembly Mesoporous Deep X-ray Microfabrication 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Plinio Innocenzi
    • 1
  • Luca Malfatti
    • 1
  • Benedetta Marmiroli
    • 2
  • Paolo Falcaro
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratorio di Scienza dei Materiali e Nanotecnologie (LMNT), D.A.D.U.Università di Sassari and CR-INSTMAlgheroItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Inorganic ChemistryGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  3. 3.Division of Materials Science and EngineeringCSIROClaytonAustralia

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