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Manufacturing of ceramic nanomaterials in Ti–Si–C–N system by sol–gel method


Problems concerning sol–gel synthesis of ceramic nanomaterials, methods of investigation of these materials and of processes proceeding with their participation have been presented. One-component nc-TiC, nc-TiN and multi-component TiC + SiC + C and Ti(C,N) + Si(C,N) + Si3N4, powders have been investigated. The sol–gel synthesis is carried out in two stages: low-temperature, in which the raw nc-TiCx product is obtained, and high-temperature one. In the high-temperature stage carbonization of carbides and elimination of excessive organic compounds, being the source of carbon in carbonization process, take place. It has been demonstrated that the oxygen, present at trace level in argon, can react with components of the system in certain range of temperature, influencing the quality of obtained product. High-temperature oxidation resistance of investigated materials in dry air was also determined, applying kinetic methods. TG-DSC measurement data were used as the basis of kinetic analysis. The method of investigation has been presented at the example of TiC + SiC + C powder oxidation. Is has been demonstrated, that in case of multi-component materials, components were oxidized in temperature ranges characteristic for pure phases.

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Conversion degree

A :

Pre-exponential Arrhenius factor (1/min)


Sample heating rate (K/min)

E :

Apparent activation energy (J/mol, kJ/mol)


Integral form of kinetic model


Conversion function dependent on mechanism of reaction

R :

Gas constant (J/mol·K)

T :

Temperature (K)

T m :

Temperature of α(T) curve inflection point (K)


Reaction rate constant, (1/min)

t :

Time (min)


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This paper and the work it concerns were partially generated in the context of the MULTIPROTECT project, funded by the European Community as contract N° NMP3-CT-2005-011783 under the 6th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. Financial support of part of the work by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education within the project No. N N507 444334, 2008–2011, is gratefully acknowledged.

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Biedunkiewicz, A. Manufacturing of ceramic nanomaterials in Ti–Si–C–N system by sol–gel method. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 59, 448–455 (2011).

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  • Carbonization
  • Kinetic
  • Nanomaterials
  • Oxidation
  • Purification
  • Titanium carbide
  • Titanium nitride
  • Silicon carbide
  • Silicon nitride