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Synthesis of magnetic-carbon sorbent for removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution

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An functional magnetic and carbon-based adsorbent, noted as Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH, was synthesized by hydrothermal and NaOH treatment processing. The results of FT-IR spectrum and ξ-potential showed the surface of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH existed losts of f-lactonic and sodium carboxylic acid (COONa) groups and was relatively negative. The U(VI) adsorption capacities onto the Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH reached the maximum of 761.20 mg/g, showing a high efficiency for removal U(VI) from polluted water. In addition, the adsorption products can be readily separated from contaminated solutions using a magnet. The results indicated that Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH possessed potential application in the remediation of uranium polluted water and soil.


Though the rapid development of nuclear energy was able to effectively relieve the energy shortages caused by excessively using fossile fuels in the past for a long time, it was likely to bring some problems such as environmental pollution and human health due to nuclide radiotoxicity and chemical toxicity [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. Therefore the removal of radionuclides from the environment was extensively paid attention all over the world. Until now, a great deal of methods such as solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, adsorption, ion-exchange, washing techniques and so on were used to treat uranium wasted water and soil [2, 3, 5, 10,11,12,13,14,15]. Among the above methods, adsorption has been widely employed as a result of its economy, high efficiency and simple operation [16,17,18].

The common sorbents were classified into carbon-based materials (activated carbon, mesoporous carbon, hydrothermal carbon, grapheme and so on), oxide materials (alumina, molecular sieve, clay, and so on), nano zero valent iron (NZVI) and polymers [19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27]. The carbon-based sorbent was preferred to be the candidate to treat nuclear waste because of its good radiation resistance, thermo-stability, and acid–base resistance properties [28,29,30,31]. Among the carbon-based materials, hydrothermal carbon possessed various merits such as synthesis easy, carbon source readily available, low environmental pollution and high production rate [30, 32]. In addition, many oxygen-containing functional groups existed on the surface of hydrothermal carbon spheres, were so easily modified that the adsorption ability to U(VI) was greatly enhanced. For example, the (bis-3,4-dihydroxybenzy)p-phenylen diamine-grafted hydrothermal carbon reported by our team previously possessed good uranium adsorption property and its maximal adsorption capacity reached 272 mg/g [32]. The possible adsorption mechanism could be explained that uranium was coordinated with oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing groups which were grafted on the surface of modified hydrothermal carbon. The surface area and activated sites are not only effect factors for adsorption properties, but also the hydrophilic of the sorbent surface. For this reason, Zhou has synthesized carboxyl-functional hydrothermal carbon spheres under low temperature (573.15 K) condition to enhance the surface hydrophilicity of sorbent for reduction of interface resistance between uranium and sorbent at aqueous solution [33]. The results showed that U(VI) sorption capacity was increased from 55.0 to 179.95 mg/g after oxidized at 573.15 K for 5 h and the uranium removal selectivity was improved after heat-treatment in the presence of co-existing ions: Na+, Ni2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+. Moreover, Yang et al. [34] has prepared amidoxime-functionalized hydrothermal carbon material (HTC-AO), possess high adsorption capacity (1.30 mmol/L) and very high uranium selectivity (0.42 mmol/g), for removal of uranium from water. Those results showed that both surface oxidation and functionalization technologies have facilitated the uranium adsorption property of hydrothermal carbon sorbent.

The separation of adsorbent from polluted water, however, existed some problems such as operation complex and time-consuming. For these reason, a simple magnetic separation technique was proposed in solid–liquid phase separation due to its fast and highly efficiency [35]. Das et al. [36] had testified the sorption of U(VI) on magnetic Fe3O4 particles, but the adsorption capacities were relative small. Therefore, Fe3O4 particles were usually modified with other materials to extend their applications. For example, So many reports proved that uranium could be adsorbed onto the surface of magnetic composed-materials (Fe3O4-composed materials), but the sorption capacity is very poor: 52 mg/g, 252 mg/g, 10.5 mg/g and 151.80 mg/g [37,38,39,40]. Zhang et al. [35] had synthesized a Fe3O4@C@layered double hydroxide composite (Fe3O4@C@Ni–Al LDH) by two-step layer-by-layer method for uranium extraction from aqueous solution (maximum adsorption capacity reached 174 mg/g). Mohamed E Mahmoud had synthesized magnetic sorbent successfully by surface encapsulation way for treating industrial wastewater containing Pb(II) and Cd(II) [41]. Lately, Mohamed E Mahmoud’s group had created a new magnetic sorbent (Nano-Fe3O4-Urea-AC) for extraction of uranium from aqueous solution [42]. However, Fe3O4 particles complexed with modified hydrothermal carbon is seldom reported until now.

Therefore, this work prepared a novel magnetic-based sorbent (Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH) for removal of uranium from the environment. The hydrothermal process was used to obtain Fe3O4-based material, and then it was modified by the way of NaOH treatment to improve sorption capacity and to ensure the integrity of the magnetic core. The structure and surface property were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and ζ-potential respectively. The uranium adsorption properties of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH were investigated by batch experiments, including the effect of pH, contact time and temperature, initial U(VI) concentration as well as adsorption kinetics isotherm models and thermodynamics. The recycle experiment, adsorption mechanism and column test were also explored.


Chemicals and reagents

All used chemicals were analytical grade (AR) without further purification. For the preparation of 10 mg/mL uranium stock solution, 11.794 g U3O8 was put in a 100 mL beaker, and 5 mL HNO3 (65 wt%) and 5 mL H2O2 (36.5 wt%) were added. The solution was heated to wet salt shape then 10 mL HNO3 (65 wt%) was added. The solution was transferred to a 1 L flask. The required uranium solution was diluted by distilled water.

Synthesis of functional magnetic Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH

The preparation process of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was shown in Fig. 1. Firstly, the synthesis of Fe3O4 micro-particles was refered as the previous report [36]. Then the Fe3O4 microparticle of 0.4 g was dispersed into 50 mL distilled water which contained 6.67 g sucrose and sonicated for 0.5 h. Subsequently, the mixture was transferred into Teflon-lined stainless-steel autoclave and heated to 453.15 K for 16 h. The obtained black product (Fe3O4@HTC) was rinsed with distilled water and ethanol, and then dried at 328.15 K. Furthermore, 0.2 g Fe3O4@HTC was added into 100 mL flask that contained 50 mL 1 M sodium hydroxide solution, and then refluxed for 4 h. Finally, the materials were washed with distilled water and noted as Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH.

Fig. 1

The pathway for synthesis of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH

Characterization methods

The chemical structures and surface properties of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH and Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH-U were determined by FTS-65A infrared spectroscopy (Bio-rad, USA). Moreover, the surface electronegativities of obtained materials were measures by ξ-potential mater (Stabino PMX 400, microtrac, USA).

Adsorption experiment

0.01 g Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH spheres were added to 100 mL uranium solution (50 mg/L) and shacked for a while, and then the solution concentration were measured by spectrophotometry using arsenazo III as indicator before and after adsorption. The uranium adsorption capacity was calculated by Eq. (1) [19]:

$$q_{m} = \left( {C_{0} - C_{\mathrm{e}} } \right)\,V/m$$

where qm, C0, Ce, m and V were the adsorption capacity (mg/g), uranium concentration in the initial solution (mg/L), uranium concentration in the equilibrium solution (mg/L), the adsorbent mass (g) and volume of initial uranium solution (L), respectively.

Results and discussion



The FT-IR spectroscopy results of Fe3O4@HTC and Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH were presented in Fig. 2 On the one hand, it was seen from curve a of Fig. 1 that three peaks at 580 cm−1, 1700 cm−1 and 1600 cm−1 were attributed to –Fe–O–, –C=O– and –C=C– stretching vibrations [43, 44], respectively. The result revealed that the material of Fe3O4@HTC was successfully synthesized and the surface of Fe3O4@HTC had been partially carbonized by hydrothermal treatment. On the other hand, as shown in curve b of Fig. 2, the peak of Fe–O stretching vibration was still existed, which elucidated the structure of Fe3O4 microparticle was not destroyed in the NaOH treatment. Besides, two new peaks at 1595 cm−1 and 1410 cm−1 assigned to the stretching vibrations of –COONa and f-lactonic were detected in the material of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH [45]. These results illustrated that the oxygen-containing functional groups of Fe3O4@HTC greatly increased after NaOH treatment. Therefore, it was speculated that the hydrophilicity of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was better than that of Fe3O4@HTC, which probably promoted the U(VI) adsorption.

Fig. 2

FT-IR spectroscopy of Fe3O4@HTC (curve a) and Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH (curve b)


The surface electronegativity of sorbent was another important effect factor to U(VI) adsorption. For this reason, ζ-potential was indeed used to characterize the electronegativity of materials. The ζ-potentials of HTC and Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH were shown in Fig. 3. It was seen that at low pH values, large numbers of H+ attached to the material surface probably caused positive surface potential. With pH value increasing, the concentration of H+ gradually decreased and the surface potential became more and more negative. The isoelectric point of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH at pH 2.2 was lower than that of HTC at pH 3.6 as a result of more –COONa and f-lactone groups locating on the surface of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH. It can be inferred that the negatively charged Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was easily combined to the positively charged UO22+ cations.

Fig. 3

ζ-potential of HTC and Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH at different pH values

U(VI) adsorption on the Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH

The influence of pH

The initial pH has a great influence on uranium species distribution and surface electronegativity of absorbent. The effect of pH on the U(VI) on Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was presented in Fig. 4. There were two stages for U(VI) adsorption on Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH. Firstly, the U(VI)adsorption capacity was increased from 98.11 to 451.30 mg/g (maximum) with pH value increasing from 3.0 to 5.5. The possible explanation was that at low pH, the high concentration of H3O+ might occupy the adsorption site of absorbent, causing the prevention of U(VI) adsorption on Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH. Subsequently, the concentration of H3O+ was gradually decreased at high pH, leading to the gradual increase of U(VI) adsorption capacity on Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH. Secondly, the U(VI) adsorption capacity was gradually decreased with pH value further increasing. It was guessed that the negatively charged uranium species such as UO2(OH)53− and UO2(OH)75− were easily generated at high pH, which were repelled with a negative surface of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH resulted in a decrease of U(VI) adsorption capacity [46]. Therefore, further experiments were conducted at the optimal pH of 5.5.

Fig. 4

Effect of pH on U(VI) adsorption on the Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH (C0 = 50 mg/L, t = 12 h, T = 298.15 K, m = 0.01 g, V = 100 mL)

The effect of contact time and adsorption kinetics

The effect of contact time on the adsorption of U(VI) onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was investigated to determine the kinetic process and the result shown in Fig. 5. It was obviously observed that the U(VI) adsorption capacity rapidly increased within 50 min and then slowly increased until equilibrium was reached at 200 min. The fast adsorption was due to the adsorption sites of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH unoccupied at initial stage and U(VI) was easily complexed with those sites. As the adsorption continuously proceeding, both of the U(VI) concentration and adsorption sites were gradually reduced, resulting in a slow increase of U(VI) adsorption capacity until saturation.

Fig. 5

Effect of contact time on U(VI) adsorption on the Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH (C0 = 50 mg/L, pH = 5.5, T = 298.15 K m = 0.01 g, V = 100 mL)

To investigate the adsorption mechanism of U(VI)onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH, two adsorption kinetic models (Pseudo-first-order and Pseudo-second-order) were used to fit the experimental datas. The linear express of the models were listed in following Eqs. (2) and (3) [19, 47]:

$$\ln \left( {q_{\text{e}} - q_{\text{t}} } \right) = \ln q_{\text{e}} - k_{1} t$$
$$t/q_{\text{t}} = 1/k_{2} q_{\text{e}}^{2} + t/q_{\text{e}}$$

where qe (mg/g) and qt (mg/g) are U(VI) adsorption capacity at equilibrium and at time t, respectively; k1 (min−1) and k2 (g/mg/min) are the equilibrium rate constants of Pseudo-first-order model and Pseudo-second-order model, respectively.

The parameters of Pseudo-first-order and Pseudo-second-order kinetic models could be directly obtained from intercepts and slopes shown in Figs. 6 and 7, and the result listed in Table 1. It was clearly seen from Table 1 that the R2-of Pseudo-second-order kinetic was much higher than that of Pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Moreover, the calculated adsorption capacity using Pseudo-second-order-kinetic model (494.26 mg/g) was more closed to the experimental value (451.3 mg/g) in comparison with that using Pseudo-first-order kinetic model. These results suggested that the U(VI) adsorption onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was controlled by a chemical process.

Fig. 6

Fitting line for Pseudo-first-order-kinetic model (C0 = 50 mg/L, pH = 5.5, T = 298.15 k, m = 0.01 g, V = 100 mL)

Fig. 7

Fitting line for Pseudo-second-order-kinetic model (C0= 50 mg/L, pH= 5.5, T = 298.15 K, m = 0.01 g, V = 100 mL)

Table 1 The kinetic parameters for the adsorption of U(VI) on Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH

The effect of temperature

The temperature of the experimental system was also a critical factor for U(VI) adsorption. The effect of temperature on the U(VI) sorption on the Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was shown in Fig. 8. The value of Qe was increased from 406.20 to 465.70 mg/g with increasing temperature from 283.15 to 308.15 K, which suggested that high temperature was beneficial to U(VI) adsorption onto the surface of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behavior of U(VI) adsorbed onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was investigated. The standard enthalpy change (ΔH) and standard entropy change (ΔS) can be calculated as Eqs. (4) and (5) [19, 47]:

Fig. 8

Effect of temperature (C0= 50 mg/L, t = 200 min, pH = 5.5, m = 0.01 g, V = 100 mL)

$$\ln K_{\text{d}} = \Delta S/R - \Delta H/RT$$
$$\Delta {{G}} = \Delta {{H}} - T\Delta {{S}} = - TR\ln K_{\text{d}}$$

where Kd is the distribution coefficient (mL/g), T and R are the absolute temperature (K) and the gas constant (8.314 J/mol/K), respectively. The values of ΔH and ΔS were derived from the slop and intercept of the curves of lnKd versus T−1 (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9

Curves for adsorption thermodynamic (C0= 50 mg/L, t = 200 min, pH = 5.5, m = 0.01 g, V = 100 mL)

The thermodynamic parameters of ΔH, ΔS and ΔG were listed in Table 2, the positive value of ΔS (165.96 J/mol/K) suggest that the adsorption process is irreversible and the randomness at the solid-solution interface during the adsorption process was increased. The ΔH (21.86 kJ/mol) > 0 and ΔG < 0 under all test condition testified that the process of U(VI) adsorption onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was spontaneous and endothermic. Moreover, the more negative value of ΔG at higher temperature indicated that the bonding between U(VI) and active sites on Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH were more stable and the U(VI) adsorption process was favored at higher temperatures [45]. In summary, the thermodynamic results proved that the adsorption process of U(VI) onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was irreversible, spontaneous and endothermic.

Table 2 The thermodynamic parameters for adsorption of U(VI) onto Fe3O4@C-NaOH

The effect of initial uranium concentration on adsorption

The effect of various initial U(VI) concentrations on the adsorption capacity of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH and the comparison of uranium adsorption capacity with different sorbents were illustrated in Fig. 10 and Table 3, respectively. As was shown in Fig. 10, the U(VI) adsorption capacity increased from 63.9 to 761.20 mg/g with an increase of initial uranium concentration and reached equilibrium (761.20 mg/g) at 100 mg/L of U(VI) concentration. The possible reason was that the driving force was enhanced at the high initial uranium concentration to overcome the mass transfer resistance between the aqueous phase and solid phase.

Fig. 10

Effect of initial uranium concentration on uranium adsorption onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH (pH = 5.5, t = 200 min, T = 298.15 K, m = 0.01 g, V = 100 mL)

Table 3 The comparison of uranium adsorption capacity with previous sorbents

The comparison of uranium equilibrium adsorption capacity with previous magnetic materials were listed in Table 3. Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH not just possess maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity, but also the preparation method is simplest. Therefore, Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH could be a very economical sorbent for reparation of uranium contaminated soil and water.

In order to investigate the U(VI) adsorption onto The Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH, two adsorption isothermal models (Langmuir and Freundlich) were used to fit the experiments data. The Langmuir model was based on the theory of monolayer adsorption. However, the theory of muti-layer adsorption was the dominant basis of the Freundlich model. The mathematical expressions of the two models were presented as Eqs. (6) and (7) [1, 19]:

$$C_{\text{e}} /q_{\text{e}} = 1/q_{\text{m}} K_{\text{L}} + C_{\text{e}} /q_{\text{m}}$$
$$\ln q_{\text{e}} = \ln K_{\text{F}} + \left( {\ln C_{\text{e}} } \right)/n$$

where qe, Ce (mg/L) and qm are equilibrium adsorption capacity, uranium concentration in solution after adsorbed and maximum fitted adsorption capacity (mg/g) , respectively. KL was the constant associated with adsorption energy, and the value of KL is increased with increasing of adsorption affinity; KF and n are the constants of adsorption capacity and adsorption strength, respectively.

The experiments data were fitted with such two models and showed in Figs. 11 and 12, and the associated parameters are listed in Table 4.

Fig. 11

Fitting curves of Langmuir model

Fig. 12

Fitting curves of Freundlich model

Table 4 Parameters of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm for the adsorption of U(VI) onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH

As can be seen from the Table 4, the value of R2 of Langmuir isothermal model is greater than that of the Freundlich isothermal model. Meanwhile, the qm (813.01 mg/g) of Langmuir isothermal model is better fitted to experimental value (761.20 mg/g). These results confirmed that the uranium adsorbed onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH is monolayer adsorption.

Recycle experiments

The reusable was one of the most important indicators for sorbent. 0.5 M HNO3 was used as eluent to study the reusable properties of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH and the result was showed in Fig. 13. The equilibrium adsorption capacity slowly decreased as the number of cycle increased. After five-cycles, the adsorption capacity still reached 251 mg/g, indicating that Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH could be taken as a candidate material to recover U(VI) from water.

Fig. 13

Result of sorption–desorption experiments (C0 = 50 mg/L, t = 200 min, T = 298.15 K, m = 0.5 g, V = 500 mL)

The adsorption mechanism

The adsorption mechanism of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH-U was researched by FT-IR spectroscopy, as was shown in Fig. 14. It was seen from curve c that the peaks at 1595 cm−1 and 1410 cm−1 were disappeared and a new peak appeared in 917 cm−1 assigned to O=U=O stretching vibration compared to Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH showed in curve b. Based on the above result, it was inferred that the uranium was adsorbed onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH by coordinating with O atom of COONa and f-lactonic groups as was presented in Fig. 15.

Fig. 14

FT-IR spectra of (a) Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH, (b) Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH-U

Fig. 15

The possible mechanism for uranium adsorption onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH

Column test

1 L of simulated uranium-polluted water containing 20 mg uranium, 1 mmol CO32− and 0.25 mmol Ca2+ were used to column test. As was shown in Fig. 16a and b, four columns (I, II, III and IV) were used once only, and all of columns were fixed with 0.1gFe3O4@HTC-NaOH. The simulated uranium-polluted water (the pH values were fixed at 6.5, 7.0, 7.5 and 8.0 respectively) was pumped from beaker to four columns, and the effluents were collected every 20 mL with a test tube. The uranium concentrations of all effluents were detected by spectrophotometer. The results of column test based on different pH value were shown in Fig. 17. Besides, the distribution of uranium species in the simulated solution (c(U) = 20 mg/L, c(Ca) = 0.25 mmol/L, c(CO32−) = 1 mmol/L) at different pH value was shown in Fig. 18. As was seen in Fig. 18, UO2CO3(OH)3, CaUO2(CO3)32−, UO2(CO3)34−, Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq), UO2(CO3)22− and UO2CO3(aq) were main species under pH range from 6.0 to 8.5.

Fig. 16

The schematic diagram of column test

Fig. 17

Results of column test

The volume of breakthrough point were decreased with an increase of pH value. This phenomenon could be explained that the electrostatic repulsion between sorbent and divalent and trivalent ions higher than univalent ions. The concentration of (UO2)2CO3(OH)3is decreased when pH values exceed 6.5, on the contrary, the concentration of CaUO2(CO3)32− was increased obviously at the same state that brings about decreasing of breakthrough point volume. In addition, the distribution of UO2(CO3)22−, UO2(CO3)34− and UO2CO3(aq) are very low compared to (UO2)2CO3(OH)3, CaUO2(CO3)32− and Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq), so they could not be the dominant control species. (UO2)2CO3(OH)3 and CaUO2(CO3)32− might be the most important effect factors on uranium removal from the environment (Fig. 18).

Fig. 18

Uranium distribution at different pH values


In this paper, the economical magnetic sorbent Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH with ultra-high uranium adsorption capacity was synthesized successfully by hydrothermal process and NaOH treatment. The chemical structure and surface potential of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH characterized by the FT-IR and ζ-potential. Show that after Fe3O4@HTC treating with NaOH solution, the magnetic core was still existed and large numbers of -COONa and f-lactonic groups were formed on the surface of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH. Besides, the isoelectric point of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH at pH 2.2 was lower than that of HTC at pH 3.6. The batch experiments were conducted to study uranium adsorption properties of Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH. The results indicated that Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH reached the maximal U(VI) sorption capacity of 761.20 mg/g at initial pH and U(VI) concentration of 5.5 and 100 mg/L and contact time of 200 min. And the U(VI) adsorption behavior onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was better fitted to Pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isothermal model. The thermodynamic result confirmed that the uranium adsorption process onto Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH was spontaneous and endothermic. Moreover, after five cycles experiment, the uranium adsorption capacity still contained 301 mg/g. The column test illustrated that Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH still owned good uranium removal efficiency under continuous dynamic process. Final, the adsorption mechanism was likely that U(VI) was coordinated with O atom of COONa and f-lactonic groups. All in all, the above results implied that Fe3O4@HTC-NaOH possessed potential application in the remediation of uranium wasted water (underground water and surface water) and polluted soil.


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This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21561002, 21866004) and the Science & Technology Support Program of Jiangxi Province (Grant No. 2018ACB21007).

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Correspondence to Zhi-bin Zhang.

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Lai, Z., Xuan, Z., Yu, S. et al. Synthesis of magnetic-carbon sorbent for removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 322, 2079–2089 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-019-06907-w

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  • Uranium
  • Carbon
  • Magnetic sorbents
  • Remediation