Skip to main content
Log in

Development of a standardized sequential extraction protocol for simultaneous extraction of multiple actinide elements

  • Published:
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Sequential extraction is a useful technique for assessing the potential to leach actinides from soils; however, current literature lacks uniformity in experimental details, making direct comparison of results impossible. This work continued development toward a standardized five-step sequential extraction protocol by analyzing extraction behaviors of 232Th, 238U, 239,240Pu and 241Am from lake and ocean sediment reference materials. Results produced a standardized procedure after creating more defined reaction conditions to improve method repeatability. A NaOH fusion procedure is recommended following sequential leaching for the complete dissolution of insoluble species.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Tessier A, Campbell P, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51(7):844–851

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Bunzl K, Flessa H, Kracke W, Schimmack W (1995) Association of fallout with 239 + 240Pu and 241Am with various soil components in successive layers of a grassland soil. Environ Sci Technol 29:2513–2518

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Lee M, Yoon Y, Clark S, Glover S (2004) Distribution and geochemical association of actinides in a contaminated soil as a function of grain size. Radiochim Acta 92:671–675

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Aubert D, Probst A, Stille P (2004) Distribution and origin of major and trace elements (particularly REE, U and Th) into labile and residual phases in an acid soil profile (Vosges Mountains, France). Appl Geochem 19:899–916

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Lucey J, Gouzy A, Boust D, Leon Vintro L, Bowden L, Finegan P, Kershaw P, Mitchell P (2004) Geochemical fractionation of plutonium in anoxic Irish Sea sediments using an optimised sequential extraction protocol. Appl Radiat Isot 60:379–385

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Desideri D, Meli M, Roselli C, Testa C (2002) Geochemical partitioning of actinides, 137Cs and 40 K in a Tyrrhenian sea sediment sample: comparison to stable elements. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 251(1):37–41

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. McDonald P, i Batlle JV, Bousher A, Whittall A, Chambers N (2001) The availability of plutonium and americium in Irish Sea sediments for re-dissolution. Sci Total Environ 267:109–123

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Schultz M, Burnett W, Inn K (1998) Evaluation of a sequential extraction method for determining actinide fractionation in soils and sediments. J Environ Radioact 40:155–174

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Outola I, Inn K, Ford R, Outola P (2009) Optimizing standard sequential extraction protocol with lake and ocean sediments. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 282(2):321–327

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Schultz M, Burnett W, Inn K, Thomas J, Lin Z (1996) NIST speciation workshop conference report. J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol 101:707–715

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Mawell S, Culligan B (2006) Rapid column extraction method for actinides in soil. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 270(3):699–704

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Martinez-Aguirre A, Garcia-Leon M (1994) Identification and effects of anthropogenic emissions of U and Th on the composition of sediments in a river/estuarine system in southern Spain. J Environ Radioact 63:231–248

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. National Bureau of Standards Certificate Standard Reference Material 4354. https://www-s.nist.gov/m-srmors/certificates/4354.pdf. Accessed 19 Aug 2015

  14. National Bureau of Standards Certificate Standard Reference Material 4357. https://www-s.nist.gov/srmors/certificates/4357.pdf?CFID=30052513&CFTOKEN=f48e6b24186e225b-D05A0785-BE41-C021-077BA64386D171F8. Accessed 19 Aug 2015

  15. Sill C (1987) Precipitation of actinides as fluorides or hydroxides for high-resolution alpha spectrometry. Nucl Chem Waste Manag 7:201–215

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Kemp AJ, Brown CJ (1990) Microwave digestion of carbonate rock samples for chemical analysis. Analyst 115(9):1197–1200

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Microwave assisted acid digestion of siliceous and organically based matrices. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/3052.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2016

  18. Rapid method for sodium hydroxide fusion of concrete and brick matrices prior to americium, plutonium, strontium, radium, and uranium analyses for environmental remediation following radiologal incidents. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-06/documents/concrete_and_brick_dissolution_by_fusion_rev_0_402r14004.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2016

  19. Reference sheet—certified reference material IAEA-384 radionuclides in fangataufa lagoon sediment. https://nucleus.iaea.org/rpst/referenceproducts/referencematerials/radionuclides/RS_IAEA-384_02.Rev.01.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2016

  20. Kaplan D, Powell B, Demirkanli D, Fjeld R, Molz F, Serkiz S, Coates J (2004) Influence of oxidation states on plutonium mobility during long-term transport through an unsaturated subsurface environment. Environ Sci Technol 38:5053–5058

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Thompson EA, Luoma SA, Cain DO, Johansson C (1980) The effect of sample storage on the extraction of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and organic material from oxidised estuarine sediments. Water Air Soil Pollut 74:215–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Komosa A (2002) Study on geochemical association of plutonium in soil using sequential extraction procedure. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 252(1):121–128

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Ahmed H, Young S, Shaw G (2012) Solubility and mobility of thorium and uranium in soils; the effect of soil properties on Th and U concentrations in soil solution. EGU General Assembly 2012, Vienna

Download references

Acknowledgements

This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE- NA0000979 through the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or limited, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. The authors wish to thank Mary Turner for her continuous support in keeping the health physics laboratories fully operational, Julie Bertoia, Trevor Low, and Tom O’Dou for maintaining the radiochemistry laboratories and ensuring a safe working environment. A special thanks is owed to Dr. Kenneth G.W. Inn for providing reference materials and valuable feedback throughout the process of this work. Finally, this work could not have been achieved without the help of several students involved in the project: Brandon Georgetown, Briana Clanton, Holly Birdsall, Rosendo Borjas, Michael Huggins, Tu Anh Tran, and Francesca Hernandez.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sherry A. Faye.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Faye, S.A., Richards, J.M., Gallardo, A.M. et al. Development of a standardized sequential extraction protocol for simultaneous extraction of multiple actinide elements. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 312, 37–45 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-017-5188-z

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-017-5188-z

Keywords

Navigation