Calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate mineralization of bioinspired hydrogels based on β-chitin isolated from biomineral of the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, L.)
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Chitin, a bioactive, antibacterial and biodegradable polymer is commonly utilized by diverse marine organisms as the main scaffold material during biomineralization. Due to its properties, chitin is also of interest as a component of organo-inorganic composites for diverse biomedical applications. In this study, chitinous fibers isolated from the cuttlebone of the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, L.) are characterized and evaluated for use as an integral part of mineralized hydrogels for biomedical applications. Since marine organisms use calcium carbonates (CaCO3), while vertebrates use calcium phosphates (CaP) as the main inorganic hard tissue components, and both minerals are used in hard tissue engineering, they were compared to determine which composite is potentially a better biomaterial. Hydrogel mineralization was conducted by subsequent dipping into cationic and anionic reactant solutions, resulting in the formation of a CaCO3 or CaP coating that penetrated into the hydrogel. Obtained composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), rheology, swelling tests and simple compression. The results indicate that β-chitin can be used for the preparation of moldable hydrogels that are easily mineralized. Mineralized hydrogels have higher elasticity than non-mineralized ones while swelling is better if the extent of mineralization is lower. Further optimization of the hydrogels composition could improve their stress response and Young’s modulus, where the current hydrogel with a higher extent of CaP mineralization excels in comparison to all other investigated composites.
KeywordsCuttlebone Chitin AFM Hydrogels Mineralization Mechanical properties
The assistance of Galja Pletikapić, PhD. in AFM measurements is highly appreciated, as is that of Ayan Ray, PhD. for simple compression measurements. This work has been supported by the Croatian Science Foundation under project IP-2013-11-5055 and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, Program NPU I (LO1504). The work was performed according to the work plan of COST Action MP1301, New Generation Biomimetic, and Customized Implants for Bone Engineering “NEWGEN”. The first author is thankful to COST Action MP1301 for providing financial support in the framework of its 5th call for STSM 2016.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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