Skip to main content
Log in

Cultural Dimensions Moderate the Association between Loneliness and Mental Health during Adolescence and Younger Adulthood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Empirical Research
  • Published:
Journal of Youth and Adolescence Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Cultural factors, such as country or continent, influence the relationship between loneliness and mental health. However, less is known about how cultural dimensions moderate this relationship during adolescence and younger adulthood, even if these dimensions manifest as country or continent differences. This study aims to examine the potential influence of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions on this relationship using a three-level meta-analysis approach. A total of 292 studies with 291,946 participants aged 10 to 24 were included in this study. The results indicate that cultural dimensions, such as individualism vs. collectivism, indulgence vs. restraint, power distance, and long-term vs. short-term orientation, moderated the associations between loneliness and social anxiety, stress, Internet overuse, and negative affect. The association between loneliness and mental health was not moderated by cultural dimensions, such as masculinity and uncertainty avoidance. These findings suggest that culture’s influence on the association between loneliness and mental health is based on a domain-specific mechanism.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Abebe, D. S., Hafstad, G. S., Brunborg, G. S., Kumar, B. N., & Lien, L. (2015). Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 17(4), 992–1001.

  • Ahmed, N., Barnett, P., Greenburgh, A., Pemovska, T., Stefanidou, T., Lyons, N., Ikhtabi, S., Talwar, S., Francis, E. R., Harris, S. M., Shah, P., Machin, K., Jeffreys, S., Mitchell, L., Lynch, C., Foye, U., Schlief, M., Appleton, R., Saunders, K. R. K., … Johnson, S. (2023). Mental health in Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. The Lancet Psychiatry, 10(7), 537–556.

  • Akbari, M., Hossein Bahadori, M., Khanbabaei, S., Boruki Milan, B., Jamshidi, S., & Potenza, M. N. (2023). Potential Risk and Protective Factors Related to Problematic Social Media Use Among Adolescents in Iran: A Latent Profile Analysis. Addictive Behaviors, 146, 107802.

  • Akçay, E., Çöp, E., Dinç, G. S., Göker, Z., Parlakay, A., Demirel, B. D., Mutlu, M., & Kırmızı, B. (2022). Loneliness, Internalizing Symptoms, and Inflammatory Markers in Adolescent COVID-19 Survivors. Child: Care, Health and Development, 48(6), 1112–1121.

  • Aktepe, E., Erturan, I., & Isik, A. (2020). Evaluation of Problematic Internet Usage, Characteristics of Internet Usage, and Other Related Psychiatric Factors in Adolescents With Acne. Dermatologica Sinica, 38(1), 9–14.

  • Al Omari, O., Al Sabei, S., Al Rawajfah, O., Abu Sharour, L., Al-Hashmi, I., Al Qadire, M., & Khalaf, A. (2021). Prevalence and Predictors of Loneliness Among Youth During the Time of COVID-19: A Multinational Study. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 29(3), 204–214.

  • Al-Yagon, M. (2016). Perceived Close Relationships With Parents, Teachers, and Peers: Predictors of Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Features in Adolescents With LD or Comorbid LD and ADHD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49(6), 597–615.

  • An, R. J., & Jiang, Y. Z. (2015). An Investigation of the Relationship Between Mobile Phone Dependence and Loneliness and Interpersonal Trust in Cyberspace Among College Students. Xinwen zhanxian, 4, 163–164. CNKI:SUN:XWZX.0.2015-04-081 (in Chinese)

  • An, X. L., Jiang, C. M., Chen, S. G., & Song, Y. (2021). Relationship Between Sensation Seeking and Mobile Phone Addiction in Adolescents: The Mediating Effect of Loneliness. China Journal of Health Psychology, 5, 1–13. (in Chinese)

  • Andiç, S., & Durak Batıgün, A. (2021). Development of Internet Addiction Scale Based on Dsm-5 Diagnostic Criteria: An Evaluation in Terms of Internet Gaming Disorder. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 32(1), 33–42.

  • Andreou, E., & Svoli, H. (2013). The Association Between Internet User Characteristics and Dimensions of Internet Addiction Among Greek Adolescents. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11(2), 139–148.

  • Andreou, E., Plexousakis, S., Georgiadi, M., & Papadopoulos, O. (2022). Mental Health Problems and Bullying Victimization Among Sexual Minority Adolescents in Greek Secondary Schools. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 183(5), 399–412.

  • Arslan, G. (2021). School Belongingness, Well-Being, and Mental Health Among Adolescents: Exploring the Role of Loneliness. Australian Journal of Psychology, 73(1), 70–80.

  • Arslan, G., & Yıldırım, M. (2021). Psychological Maltreatment and Loneliness in Adolescents: Social Ostracism and Affective Experiences. Psychological Reports, 125(6), 3028–3048.

  • Aydinli-Karakulak, A., Tepe, B., Nurcan, E., & Dimitrova, R. (2021). How Prosocial Behavior Turns Bad Into Good: An Examination Among Turkish-Bulgarian Adolescents. Current Psychology, 40(8), 3986–3996.

  • Azhari, A., Toms, Z., Pavlopoulou, G., Esposito, G., & Dimitriou, D. (2022). Social Media Use in Female Adolescents: Associations With Anxiety, Loneliness, and Sleep Disturbances. Acta Psychologica, 229, 103706.

  • Baker, O. E., & Bugay, A. (2011). Mediator and Moderator Role of Loneliness in the Relationship Between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 21(2), 175–185.

  • Barbieri, M., & Mercado, E. (2022). The Impact of Stay-At-Home Regulations on Adolescents’ Feelings of Loneliness and Internalizing Symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 94(7), 1022–1034.

  • Barjaková, M., Garnero, A., & d’Hombres, B. (2023). Risk Factors for Loneliness: A Literature Review. Social Science & Medicine, 334, 116163.

  • Barreto, M., Victor, C., Hammond, C., Eccles, A., Richins, M. T., & Qualter, P. (2021). Loneliness Around the World: Age, Gender, and Cultural Differences in Loneliness. Personality and Individual Differences, 169, 110066.

  • Barry, C. T., & Kim, H. (2023). Parental Monitoring of Adolescent Social Media Use: Relations With Adolescent Mental Health and Self-Perception. Current Psychology, 43, 2473-2485.

  • Baskin, T. W., Wampold, B. E., Quintana, S. M., & Enright, R. D. (2010). Belongingness as a Protective Factor Against Loneliness and Potential Depression in a Multicultural Middle School. Counseling Psychologist, 38(5), 626–651.

  • Baytemir, K., & Yildz, M. A. (2017). Multiple Mediation of Loneliness and Negative Affects in the Relationship Between Adolescents’ Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms. Anales De Psicologia, 33(3), 612–620.

  • Beller, J., & Wagner, A. (2020). Loneliness and Health: The Moderating Effect of Cross-Cultural Individualism/Collectivism. Journal of Aging and Health, 32(10), 1516–1527.

  • Bezinović, P., Roviš, D., Rončević, N., & Bilajac, L. (2015). Patterns of Internet Use and Mental Health of High School Students in Istria County Croatia: Cross-Sectional Study. Croatian Medical Journal, 56(3), 297–305.

  • Birditt, K. S., Manalel, J. A., Sommers, H., Luong, G., & Fingerman, K. L. (2019). Better Off Alone: Daily Solitude Is Associated With Lower Negative Affect in More Conflictual Social Networks. The Gerontologist, 59(6), 1152–1161.

  • Blazina, C., Eddins, R., Burridge, A., & Settle, A. (2007). The Relationship Between Masculinity Ideology, Loneliness, and Separation-Individuation Difficulties. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 15(1), 101–109.

  • Bohnert, A., Lieb, R., & Arola, N. (2019). More than Leisure: Organized Activity Participation and Socio-Emotional Adjustment Among Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(7), 2637–2652.

  • Boulesteix, A.-L., Lauer, S., & Eugster, M. J. A. (2013). A Plea for Neutral Comparison Studies in Computational Sciences. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e61562.

  • Boursier, V., Gioia, F., Musetti, A. R., & Schimmenti, A. (2023). Covid-19-Related Fears, Stress and Depression in Adolescents: The Role of Loneliness and Relational Closeness to Online Friends. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 33(2), 296–318.

  • Bowker, J. C., & Etkin, R. G. (2016). Evaluating the Psychological Concomitants of Other-Sex Crush Experiences During Early Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(5), 846–857.

  • Bowker, J. C., Santo, J. B., & Adams, R. E. (2019). A Dynamic Examination of the Associations Between Shyness, Psychological Difficulties, and Stressful Life Events During Early Adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(7), 1183–1195.

  • Bowker, J. C., Richard, C. L., V. M. Stotsky, Weingarten, J. P., & Shafik, M. I. (2023a). Understanding Shyness and Psychosocial Difficulties During Early Adolescence: The Role of Friend Shyness and Self-Silencing. Personality and Individual Differences, 209, 112209.

  • Bowker, J. C., White, H. I., & Weingarten, J. P. (2023b). Exploratory Study of Best Friendship Dissolution Characteristics and Psychological Difficulties During Early Adolescence. Infant and Child Development, 32(4), e2428.

  • Brage, D., & Meredith, W. (1994). A Causal Model of Adolescent Depression. The Journal of Psychology, 128(4), 455–468.

  • Brage, D., Campbell-Grossman, C., & Dunkel, J. (1995). Psychological Correlates of Adolescent Depression. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 8(4), 23–30.

  • Brage, D., Meredith, W., & Woodward, J. (1993). Correlates of Loneliness Among Midwestern Adolescents. Adolescence, 28(111), 685–693.

  • Branch-Smith, C., Shaw, T., Lin, A., Runions, K., Payne, D., Nguyen, R., Hugo, H., Balding, L., & Cross, D. (2018). Bullying and Mental Health Amongst Australian Children and Young People With Cystic Fibrosis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 88(4), 402–412.

  • Brewer, G., & Kerslake, J. (2015). Cyberbullying, Self-Esteem, Empathy and Loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 255–260.

  • Bullock, A., Liu, J., Cheah, C. S. L., Coplan, R. J., Chen, X., & Li, D. (2018). The Role of Adolescents’ Perceived Parental Psychological Control in the Links Between Shyness and Socio-Emotional Adjustment Among Youth. Journal of Adolescence, 68, 117–126.

  • Cai, T., & Tu, K. M. (2020). Linking Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control With Internalizing Symptoms in Early Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Vagal Tone. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 48(6), 809–821.

  • Cai, Y. Y., Zhan, D. L., & Wang, L. S. (2022). The Effects of Emotional and Social Isolation on Pathological Internet Use Among Freshmen: The Mediating Role of a Sense of Meaning in Life. Health Vocational Education, 40(11), 123–126. (in Chinese)

  • Cal, R. E., Graziano, F., Cattelino, E., & Testa, S. (2021). Depressive Symptoms and Loneliness in Early Adolescence: The Role of Empathy and Emotional Self-Efficacy. Journal of Early Adolescence, 41(3), 369–393.

  • Canas, E., Estevez, E., Marzo, J. C., & Piqueras, J. A. (2019). Psychological Adjustment in Cybervictims and Cyberbullies in Secondary Education. Anales De Psicologia, 35(3), 434–443.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Canas, E., Estevez, E., Carmen Martinez-Monteagudo, M., & Delgado, B. (2020). Emotional Adjustment in Victims and Perpetrators of Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying. Social Psychology of Education, 23(4), 917–942.

  • Cao, J., Xie, M., & Lin, D. (2022). Trajectories of Perceived Discrimination among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Early Adolescents: Predictors and Outcomes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 51(5), 871–887.

  • Caputi, M., Pantaleo, G., & Scaini, S. (2017). Do Feelings of Loneliness Mediate the Relationship between Sociocognitive Understanding and Depressive Symptoms During Late Childhood and Early Adolescence? The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 178(4), 207–216.

  • Carcedo, R. J., Vazquez-Iglesias, P., Parade, S., Herreros-Fraile, A., & Hervalejo, D. (2022). Social Anxiety Mediates the Effect of Attachment to Parents on Friendships and Loneliness During the College Transition. Current Psychology, 42, 10457–19467.

  • Carlos Chavez, F. L., Gonzales-Backen, M. A., & Grzywacz, J. G. (2021). Work, Stressors, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Undocumented Guatemalan Adolescents in United States Agriculture: A Mixed-Methods Approach. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 31(4), 1218–1234.

  • Cauberghe, V., Van Wesenbeeck, I., De Jans, S., Hudders, L., & Ponnet, K. (2021). How Adolescents Use Social Media to Cope With Feelings of Loneliness and Anxiety During COVID-19 Lockdown. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 24(4), 250–257.

  • Cava, M. J., Buelga, S., & Tomás, I. (2021). Peer Victimization and Dating Violence Victimization: The Mediating Role of Loneliness, Depressed Mood, and Life Satisfaction. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(5), 2677–2702.

  • Cava, M. J., Tomás, I., Buelga, S., & Carrascosa, L. (2020). Loneliness, Depressive Mood and Cyberbullying Victimization in Adolescent Victims of Cyber Dating Violence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(12), 4629.

  • Cavanaugh, A. M., & Buehler, C. (2016). Adolescent Loneliness and Social Anxiety: The Role of Multiple Sources of Support. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 33(2), 149–170.

  • Cena, L., Trainini, A., Zecca, S., Bonetti Zappa, S., Cunegatti, F., & Buizza, C. (2023). Loneliness, Affective Disorders, Suicidal Ideation, and the Use of Psychoactive Substances in a Sample of Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 36(3), 188–198.

  • Chang, Q., Chan, C. H., & Yip, P. S. F. (2017). A Meta-Analytic Review on Social Relationships and Suicidal Ideation Among Older Adults. Social Science & Medicine, 191, 65–76.

  • Chang, Y. C., Chen, C. H., Huang, P. C., & Lin, L. Y. (2019). Understanding the Characteristics of Friendship Quality, Activity Participation, and Emotional Well-Being in Taiwanese Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 26(6), 452–462.

  • Chao, M., Lei, J., He, R., Jiang, Y., & Yang, H. (2023). TikTok Use and Psychosocial Factors Among Adolescents: Comparisons of Non-users, Moderate Users, and Addictive Users. Psychiatry Research, 325, 115247.

  • Chen, C., & Hu, L. (2022). Self-Esteem Mediated Relations Between Loneliness and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents With Left-Behind Experience. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1014794.

  • Chen, C., & Qin, J. (2020). Emotional Abuse and Adolescents’ Social Anxiety: The Roles of Self-Esteem and Loneliness. Journal of Family Violence, 35(5), 497–507.

  • Chen, X., & Graham, S. (2012). Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization Among Late Adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 35(6), 1547–1556.

  • Chen, Y. X., Li, R. X., & Liu, X. P. (2019). Adolescents’ Social Withdraw, Active Coping and Internet Addiction: Mediation of Loneliness. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1, 94–98. (in Chinese)

  • Cheng, C., Ying, W., Ebrahimi, O. V., & Wong, K. F. E. (2023). Coping Style and Mental Health Amid the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Culture-Moderated Meta-Analysis of 44 Nations. Health Psychology Review.

  • Cheng, J., Liu, C. F., Qing, L., Lu, C. H., & Chen, Q. (2022). Effect of Mobile Phone Dependence on Sleep Quality and Mediating Effect of Loneliness Among Secondary Vocational Students in a School in Shenzhen City. Chinese Journal of School Doctor, 36(1), 1–3, 40. (in Chinese)

  • Cheng, P. (2021). The Relationship between Loneliness and Adolescents’ Fear of Missing Out: The Mediating Effect of Social Media Use Intensity. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1, 187–190. (in Chinese)

  • Cheung, J. C.-S., Chan, K. H.-W., Lui, Y.-W., Tsui, M.-S., & Chan, C. (2018). Psychological Well-Being and Adolescents’ Internet Addiction: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Hong Kong. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 35(5), 477–487.

  • Cheung, M. W.-L. (2014). Modeling Dependent Effect Sizes With Three-Level Meta-Analyses: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Psychological Methods, 19(2), 211–229.

  • Chow, C. M., Ruhl, H., & Buhrmester, D. (2015). Romantic Relationships and Psychological Distress Among Adolescents: Moderating Role of Friendship Closeness. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61(7), 711–720.

  • Christiansen, J., Qualter, P., Friis, K., Pedersen, S., Lund, R., Andersen, C., Bekker-Jeppesen, M., & Lasgaard, M. (2021). Associations of Loneliness and Social Isolation With Physical and Mental Health Among Adolescents and Young Adults. Perspectives in Public Health, 141(4), 226–236.

  • Chu, X. W., Fan, C. Y., Lian, S. L., & Zhou, Z. K. (2019). Does Bullying Victimization Really Influence Adolescents’ Psychosocial Problems? A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study in China. Journal of Affective Disorders, 246, 603–610.

  • Clayton, M. G., Giletta, M., Boettiger, C. A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2021). Determinants of Excessive Reassurance-Seeking: Adolescents’ Internalized Distress, Friendship Conflict, and Inhibitory Control as Prospective Predictors. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 50(1), 88–96.

  • Clear, S. J., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Duffy, A. L. A., & Barber, B. L. (2020). Internalizing Symptoms and Loneliness: Direct Effects of Mindfulness and Protection Against the Negative Effects of Peer Victimization and Exclusion. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 44(1), 51–61.

  • Cook, E. C. (2022). Perceived Changes in Peer Relationships and Behavioral Health Among College Students During COVID-19. Journal of American College Health. published online.

  • Cooper, K., Hards, E., Moltrecht, B., Reynolds, S., Shum, A., McElroy, E., & Loades, M. (2021). Loneliness, Social Relationships, and Mental Health in Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Affective Disorders, 289, 98–104.

  • Cosenza, M., Ciccarelli, M., Pizzini, B., Griffiths, M. D., Sacco, M., & Nigro, G. (2022). The Role of Loneliness, Negative Affectivity, Mentalization, and Alcohol Use in Adolescent Gambling. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 10(3), 33–33.

  • Dai, G., Tan, Z. T., Dai, L., & Zhong, J. P. (2011). The Relationship Between Sense of Loneliness and Life Events of Medicine College Students. China Journal of Health Psychology, 19(12), 1481–1483. CNKI:SUN:JKXL.0.2011-12-038 (in Chinese)

  • Daniels, M. A., & Greguras, G. J. (2014). Exploring the Nature of Power Distance: Implications for Micro- and Macro-Level Theories, Processes, and Outcomes. Journal of Management, 40(5), 1202–1229.

  • Danneel, S., Nelemans, S., Spithoven, A., Bastin, M., Bijttebier, P., Colpin, H., Van Den Noortgate, W., Van Leeuwen, K., Verschueren, K., & Goossens, L. (2019). Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Linking Loneliness, Social Anxiety Symptoms, and Depressive Symptoms Over Time. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 47(10), 1691–1705.

  • De Jong Gierveld, J., & Tesch-Römer, C. (2012). Loneliness in Old Age in Eastern and Western European Societies: Theoretical Perspectives. European Journal of Ageing, 9(4), 285–295.

  • De Luca, L., Giletta, M., Menesini, E., & Prinstein, M. J. (2022). Reciprocal Associations Between Peer Problems and Non-suicidal Self-Injury Throughout Adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 63(12), 1486–1495.

  • Doane, L. D., & Thurston, E. C. (2014). Associations Among Sleep, Daily Experiences, and Loneliness in Adolescence: Evidence of Moderating and Bidirectional Pathways. Journal of Adolescence, 37(2), 145–154.

  • Du, X., Xiang, G., Xiao, M., Liu, X., Sun, J., Ding, C., & Chen, H. (2023). The Relationship Between Loneliness and Problematic Smartphone Us E Among Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Negative Emotions and Maladaptive Coping. Journal of Adolescence, 95(7), 1449–1462.

  • Duan, W., Fei, Y., & Tang, X. (2020). Latent Profiles and Grouping Effects of Resilience on Mental Health among Poor Children and Adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 13(2), 635–655.

  • Dziedzic, B., Sarwa, P., Kobos, E., Sienkiewicz, Z., Idzik, A., Wysokiński, M., & Fidecki, W. (2021). Loneliness and Depression Among Polish High-School Students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 1706.

  • Eccles, A. M., & Qualter, P. (2021). Review: Alleviating Loneliness in Young People – A Meta-Analysis of Interventions. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 26(1), 17–33.

  • Eid, E., Fekih-Romdhane, F., El Dine, A. S., Malaeb, D., Hallit, S., & Obeid, S. (2023). Does Problematic Use of Social Network Mediate the Association Between Bullying Victimization and Loneliness Among Lebanese Adolescents? Children, 10(3), 599.

  • van den Eijnden, R. J., Meerkerk, G. J., Vermulst, A. A., Spijkerman, R., & Engels, R. C. (2008). Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being Among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 655–665.

  • van den Eijnden, R., Vermulst, A., van Rooij, A. J., Scholte, R., & van de Mheen, D. (2014). The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents: A Comparison With Real-Life Victimization. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(5), 790–802.

  • Eldeleklioglu, J., & Vural-Batik, M. (2013). Predictive Effects of Academic Achievement, Internet Use Duration, Loneliness and Shyness on Internet Addiction. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 28(1), 141–152.

  • Elliot, A. J., Gable, S. L., & Mapes, R. R. (2006). Approach and Avoidance Motivation in the Social Domain. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(3), 378–391.

  • Ellis, W. E., Dumas, T. M., & Forbes, L. M. (2020). Physically Isolated but Socially Connected: Psychological Adjustment and Stress Among Adolescents During the Initial COVID-19 Crisis. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 52(3), 177–187.

  • Erath, S. A., Flanagan, K. S., Bierman, K. L., & Tu, K. M. (2010). Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31(1), 15–26.

  • Ergun, G., & Alkan, A. (2020). The Social Media Disorder and Ostracism in Adolescents: (OSTRACA- SM Study). The Eurasian journal of medicine, 52(2), 139–144.

  • Espinoza, G., & Hernandez, H. L. (2022). Adolescent Loneliness, Stress and Depressive Symptoms During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Protective Role of Friends. Infant and Child Development, 31(3), e2305.

  • Fang, X., Tian, M., Wang, R., & Wang, P. (2022). Relationships Between Depression, Loneliness and Pathological Internet Use in Adolescents: A Cross-Lagged Analysis. Current Psychology, 42, 20696–20706

  • Farrell, A. H., Vitoroulis, I., Eriksson, M., & Vaillancourt, T. (2023). Loneliness and Well-Being in Children and Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. Children, 10(2), 2.

  • Fatehi, K., Priestley, J. L., & Taasoobshirazi, G. (2020). The Expanded View of Individualism and Collectivism: One, Two, or Four Dimensions? International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 20(1), 7–24.

  • Forgeron, P. A., Chambers, C. T., Cohen, J., Dick, B. D., Finley, G. A., & Lamontagne, C. (2018). Dyadic Differences in Friendships of Adolescents With Chronic Pain Compared With Pain-Free Peers. Pain, 159(6), 1103–1111.

  • Fox, C. L., Hunter, S. C., & Jones, S. E. (2016). Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 12(3), 377–389.

  • French, D. C., Purwono, U., & Shen, M. (2022). Religiosity and Positive Religious Coping as Predictors of Indonesian Muslim Adolescents’ Externalizing Behavior and Loneliness. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 14(2), 189–199.

  • Frijns, T., & Finkenauer, C. (2009). Longitudinal Associations Between Keeping a Secret and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33(2), 145–154.

  • Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2020). Toward an Integrated and Differential Approach to the Relationships Between Loneliness, Different Types of Facebook Use, and Adolescents’ Depressed Mood. Communication Research, 47(5), 701–728.

  • Fuligni, A. J. (2020). Is There Inequality in What Adolescents Can Give as Well as Receive? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 29(4), 405–411.

  • Fumagalli, E., Belen Dolmatzian, M., & Shrum, L. J. (2021). Centennials, FOMO, and Loneliness: An Investigation of the Impact of Social Networking and Messaging/VoIP Apps Usage During the Initial Stage of the Coronavirus Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 620739.

  • Gallagher, M., Prinstein, M. J., Simon, V., & Spirito, A. (2014). Social Anxiety Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation in a Clinical Sample of Early Adolescents: Examining Loneliness and Social Support as Longitudinal Mediators. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(6), 871–883.

  • Gao, J. L. (2020). Negative Life Events and Depression Among Rural Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model. Advances in Psychology, 3, 281–289. (in Chinese)

  • Gao, J., Lu, X. Q., & Sui, G. R. (2019). A Study on the Influence of Perceived Social Support, Coping Style and Loneliness on Internet Addiction of College Students. Journal of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Educational Science Edition), 21(1), 99–102. CNKI:SUN:CDYY.0.2019-01-033 (in Chinese)

  • Gao, Y. J. & Zhan, W. (2022). The Relationship Between Adolescent Peer Aggression and Depressed Mood: A Moderated Mediation Model. Mental Health Education in Primary and Secondary School, 18, 15–20. (in Chinese)

  • Geng, J., Lei, L., Ouyang, M., Nie, J., & Wang, P. (2021). The Influence of Perceived Parental Phubbing on Adolescents’ Problematic Smartphone Use: A Two-Wave Multiple Mediation Model. Addictive Behaviors, 121, 106995.

  • Goodfellow, C., Willis, M., Inchley, J., Kharicha, K., Leyland, A. H., Qualter, P., Simpson, S., & Long, E. (2023). Mental Health and Loneliness in Scottish Schools: A Multilevel Analysis of Data From the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 608–625.

  • Goya Arce, A. B., & Polo, A. J. (2017). A Test of the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model Among Ethnic Minority Youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(6), 1181–1193.

  • Grøholt, B., Ekeberg, O., Wichstrøm, L., & Haldorsen, T. (2005). Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Adolescents: Different Factors Contribute to Self-Esteem. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35(5), 525–535.

  • Guo, J., Gao, Q., Wu, R., Ying, J., & You, J. (2022). Parental Psychological Control, Parent-Related Loneliness, Depressive Symptoms, and Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy: A Moderated Serial Mediation Model of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury. Archives of Suicide Research, 26(3), 1462–1477.

  • Guo, Q., Liu, Z., Li, X., & Qiao, X. (2018). Indulgence and Long Term Orientation Influence Prosocial Behavior at National Level. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1798.

  • Hansen, T., & Slagsvold, B. (2016). Late-Life Loneliness in 11 European Countries: Results from the Generations and Gender Survey. Social Indicators Research, 129(1), 445–464.

  • Hao, Z. S., Zhang, H. B., & Niu, Y. B. (2017). The Relationship Between Peer Acceptance, Friendship Support, Loneliness and Internet Addiction Among Secondary School Students. Chinese Journal of Ergonomics, 23(6), 26-31, 41. (in Chinese)

  • Harris, R. A., Qualter, P., & Robinson, S. J. (2013). Loneliness Trajectories From Middle Childhood to Pre-adolescence: Impact on Perceived Health and Sleep Disturbance. Journal of Adolescence, 36(6), 1295–1304.

  • He, Y. L., Wang, D. X., Zhang, Y. W., Liao, R., Ren, K., & Zhang, H. (2023). The Effect of Peer Relationship on Loneliness in Adolescents With Mixed Anxiety and Depressive Disorder: A Chain Mediating Effect Analysis of Sleep Quality and Psychological Resilience. Journal of Neuroscience and Mental Health, 23(7), 497–503. (in Chinese)

  • Heiman, T., & Margalit, M. (1998). Loneliness, Depression, and Social Skills Among Students With Mild Mental Retardation in Different Educational Settings. Journal of Special Education, 32(3), 154–163.

  • Heinrich, L. M., & Gullone, E. (2006). The Clinical Significance of Loneliness: A Literature Review. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(6), 695–718.

  • Hellström, L., & Beckman, L. (2021). Life Challenges and Barriers to Help Seeking: Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Voices of Mental Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(24), 13101.

  • Heu, L. C., Hansen, N., & van Zomeren, M. (2021). Resolving the Cultural Loneliness Paradox of Choice: The Role of Cultural Norms About Individual Choice Regarding Relationships in Explaining Loneliness in Four European Countries. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 38(7), 2053–2072.

  • Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1).

  • Holt-Lunstad, J. (2018). Why Social Relationships Are Important for Physical Health: A Systems Approach to Understanding and Modifying Risk and Protection. Annual Review of Psychology, 69(1), 437–458.

  • Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., Baker, M., Harris, T., & Stephenson, D. (2015). Loneliness and Social Isolation as Risk Factors for Mortality: A Meta-Analytic Review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(2), 227–237.

  • Hou, T., Xie, Y., Mao, X., Liu, Y., Zhang, J., Wen, J., Chen, Y., Luo, Z., & Cai, W. (2021). The Mediating Role of Loneliness Between Social Support and Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese Rural Adolescents During COVID-19 Outbreak: A Comparative Study Between Left-Behind and Non-left-behind Students. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 740094.

  • Houghton, S., Kyron, M., Lawrence, D., Hunter, S. C., Hattie, J., Carroll, A., Zadow, C., & Chen, W. (2022). Longitudinal Trajectories of Mental Health and Loneliness for Australian Adolescents With‐or‐Without Neurodevelopmental Disorders: The Impact of Covid‐19 School Lockdowns. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 63(11), 1332–1343.

  • Houghton, S., Lawrence, D., Hunter, S. C., Zadow, C., Kyron, M., Paterson, R., Carroll, A., Christie, R., & Brandtman, M. (2020). Loneliness Accounts for the Association Between Diagnosed Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Symptoms of Depression Among Adolescents. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 42(2), 237–247.

  • Hu, Y., Bullock, A., Zhou, Y., & Liu, J. (2023). Moderating Effect of Classroom Sociable Norm on the Relations Between Unsociability and Internalizing Problems in Chinese Adolescents. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 1168342.

  • Huan, V. S., Ang, R. P., & Chye, S. (2014). Loneliness and Shyness in Adolescent Problematic Internet Users: The Role of Social Anxiety. Child & Youth Care Forum, 43(5), 539–551.

  • Huang, X. B., Shen, L. X., Wang, X. L., & Yu, X. (2006). Correlation Among Levels of Self-Esteem, Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Senior Vocational School Students. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 46, 61–63. (in Chinese)

  • Huang, X., Liu, H., Lan, Z., & Deng, F. (2023). The Effect of Loneliness on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behavior in Chinese Junior High School Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 16, 1831–1843.

  • Huang, Y. Y. & Xin, S. F. (2023). The Association Between Cyber-Ostracism and Externalizing Problems of Adolescents: A Moderated Mediating Model. Chinese Journal of Applied Psychology. published online. (in Chinese)

  • Humenny, G., Grygiel, P., Dolata, R., & Świtaj, P. (2021). Peer Network Status and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Testing the Mediating Effects of Metaperception and Loneliness. School Mental Health: A Multidisciplinary Research and Practice Journal, 13, 250–265.

  • Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Sage Publications, Inc.

  • Hutten, E., Jongen, E. M. M., Verboon, P., Bos, A. E. R., Smeekens, S., & Cillessen, A. H. N. (2021). Trajectories of Loneliness and Psychosocial Functioning. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 689913.

  • Hyl, P., Murphy, J., Shevlin, M., Murphy, S., Egan, A., & Boduszek, D. (2015). Psychometric Properties of the Posttraumatic Cognition Inventory Within a Northern Ireland Adolescent Sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(4), 435–449.

  • Inderbitzen-Pisaruk, H., Clark, M. L., & Solano, C. H. (1992). Correlates of Loneliness in Midadolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21(2), 151–167.

  • Iranzo, B., Buelga, S., Cava, M.-J., & Ortega-Baron, J. (2019). Cyberbullying, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence. Psychosocial Intervention, 28(2), 75–81.

  • Jackson, T. (2007). Protective Self-Presentation, Sources of Socialization, and Loneliness Among Australian Adolescents and Young Adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(6), 1552–1562.

  • Jefferson, R., Barreto, M., Jones, F., Conway, J., Chohan, A., Madsen, K. R., Verity, L., Petersen, K. J., & Qualter, P. (2023). Adolescent Loneliness Across the World and Its Relation to School Climate, National Culture and Academic Performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(4), 997–1016.

  • Jiang, Q., Zhao, F., Xie, X., Wang, X., Nie, J., Lei, L., & Wang, P. (2022). Difficulties in Emotion Regulation and Cyberbullying Among Chinese Adolescents: A Mediation Model of Loneliness and Depression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(1), 1105–1124.

  • Jin, Y., Xiong, W., Liu, X., & An, J. (2023). Trait Mindfulness and Problematic Smartphone Use in Chinese Early Adolescent: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Negative Affectivity and Fear of Missing Out. Behavioral Sciences, 13(3), 222.

  • Johnson, H. D., LaVoie, J. C., & Mahoney, M. (2001). Interparental Conflict and Family Cohesion Predictors of Loneliness, Social Anxiety, and Social Avoidance in Late Adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16(3), 304–318.

  • Juang, L. P., Syed, M., & Cookston, J. T. (2012). Acculturation-Based and Everyday Parent-Adolescent Conflict Among Chinese American Adolescents: Longitudinal Trajectories and Implications for Mental Health. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(6), 916–926.

  • Kara, M., Baytemir, K., & Inceman-Kara, F. (2021). Duration of Daily Smartphone Usage as an Antecedent of Nomophobia: Exploring Multiple Mediation of Loneliness and Anxiety. Behaviour & Information Technology, 40(1), 85–98.

  • Karababa, A. (2020). The Relationship Between Trait Anger and Loneliness Among Early Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Emotion Regulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 159, 109856.

  • Kayaoğlu, K., & Başcıllar, M. (2022). Determining the Relationship Between Loneliness and Depression in Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursings, 35(4), 315–321.

  • Kidd, S., & Shahar, G. (2008). Resilience in Homeless Youth: The Key Role of Self-Esteem. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78(2), 163–172.

  • Kilincel, S., & Muratdagi, G. (2021). Evaluation of Factors Affecting Social Media Addiction in Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Annals of Clinical and Analytical Medicine, 12(4), 447–451.

  • Kılınçel, Ş., Kılınçel, O., Muratdağı, G., Aydın, A., & Usta, M. B. (2021). Factors Affecting the Anxiety Levels of Adolescents in Home-quarantine During COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey. Asia Pac Psychiatry, 13(2), e12406.

  • Kim, G. M., Jeong, E. J., Lee, J. Y., & Yoo, J. H. (2022). Role of Social Capital in Adolescents’ Online Gaming: A Longitudinal Study Focused on the Moderating Effect of Social Capital Between Gaming Time and Psychosocial Factors. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 931134.

  • Kingery, J. N., Erdley, C. A., & Marshall, K. C. (2011). Peer Acceptance and Friendship as Predictors of Early Adolescents’ Adjustment Across the Middle School Transition. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly-Journal of Developmental Psychology, 57(3), 215–243.

  • Kirkpatricksmith, J., Rich, A. R., Bonner, R., & Jans, F. (1992). Psychological Vulnerability and Substance-Abuse as Predictors of Suicide Ideation Among Adolescents. Omega-Journal of Death and Dying, 24(1), 21–33.

  • Koenig, L. J., Isaacs, A. M., & Schwartz, J. A. J. (1994). Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression and Loneliness: Why Are Boys Lonelier if Girls Are More Depressed? Journal of Research in Personality, 28(1), 27–43.

  • Kristensen, S. M., Urke, H. B., Larsen, T. B., & Danielsen, A. G. (2023). Hello Darkness, My Old Friend: Moderating a Random Intercept Cross-lagged Panel Model of Loneliness and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression. Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 51(3), 383–397.

  • Ladd, G. W., & Ettekal, I. (2013). Peer-Related Loneliness Across Early to Late Adolescence: Normative Trends, Intra-Individual Trajectories, and Links With Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 36(6), 1269–1282.

  • Lai, D. W. L., Li, J., Ou, X., & Li, C. Y. P. (2020). Effectiveness of a Peer-Based Intervention on Loneliness and Social Isolation of Older Chinese Immigrants in Canada: A Randomized Controlled Trial. BMC Geriatrics, 20(1), 356.

  • Lai, X. F., Zhang, W., Bao, Z. Z., Wang, Y. H., & Xiong, Q. L. (2014). Parental Psychological Control and Depression Among Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model. Psychological Development and Education, 30(3), 293–302. (in Chinese)

  • Lapierre, M. A., Zhao, P., & Custer, B. E. (2019). Short-Term Longitudinal Relationships Between Smartphone Use/Dependency and Psychological Well-Being Among Late Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(5), 607–612.

  • Larranaga, E., Yubero, S., Ovejero, A., & Navarro, R. (2016). Loneliness, Parent-Child Communication and Cyberbullying Victimization Among Spanish Youths. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 1–8.

  • Lasgaard, M., Goossens, L., Bramsen, R. H., Trillingsgaard, T., & Elklit, A. (2011). Different Sources of Loneliness Are Associated With Different Forms of Psychopathology in Adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(2), 233–237.

  • Lee, C.-Y. S., Goldstein, S. E., & Dik, B. J. (2018). The Relational Context of Social Support in Young Adults: Links With Stress and Well-Being. Journal of Adult Development, 25(1), 25–36.

  • Li, C. N., Dang, J. N., He, S. S., & Li, H. M. (2013a). Shyness and Loneliness: The Multiple Mediating Effects of Self-Efficacy. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 11, 1251–1260. (in Chinese)

  • Li, Y., Zhang, X., Miao, L., & Diao, H. Y. (2013b). Correlation Research on Loneliness, Self-Esteem, Internet Addiction Disorder in College Students. Chinese Journal of School Health, 34(8), 949–951. (in Chinese)

  • Li, L. Q., & Yang, W. Y. (2022). The Impact of Parental Marital Conflict on Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Family Functioning. Research on Modern Basic Education, 47(3), 125–132. (in Chinese)

  • Li, R., Yao, M., Liu, H., & Chen, Y. (2019). Relationships Among Autonomy Support, Psychological Control, Coping, and Loneliness: Comparing Victims With Nonvictims. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 266–272.

  • Li, S., Tao, X. Y., Qiu, Y. Q., Liang, K. F., & Liang, X. M. (2023). The Current Situation of Interpersonal Alienation Among Medical Students and Its Relationship With Emotional Abuse and Understanding of Social Support. Xinli yuekan, 18(3), 65–67. (in Chinese)

  • Li, Y. & Liu, J. S. (2010). The Relationship of Adolescent’s Life Events and Loneliness: The Mediating Effect of SOC. Psychological Research, 3(3), 73–77. CNKI:SUN:OXLY.0.2010-03-015 (in Chinese)

  • Lieb, R. W., & Bohnert, A. M. (2017). Relations Between Executive Functions, Social Impairment, and Friendship Quality on Adjustment Among High Functioning Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(9), 2861–2872.

  • Lin, P. H., Wang, P. Y., Lin, Y. L., & Yang, S. Y. (2020). Is It Weird to Enjoy Solitude? Relationship of Solitude Capacity With Personality Traits and Physical and Mental Health in Junior College Students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(14), 5060.

  • Lindekilde, N., Lübeck, M., & Lasgaard, M. (2018). Identity Formation and Evaluation in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: How Is It Associated With Depressive Symptoms and Loneliness? Scandinavian journal of child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology, 6(2), 91–97.

  • Ling, Y., Zhon, G. B., Yi, J. Y., Xiao, J., & Yao, S. Q. (2009). The Effect of Adolescents’ Loneliness on Depression and the Moderating Effects of Social Support. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medicine and Brain Science, 18(6), 551–553. (in Chinese)

  • Lippke, S., & Warner, L. M. (2023). Understanding and Overcoming Challenges in Times of Personal or Global Crisis—Editorial on the Special Issue on Loneliness and Health. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 15(1), 3–23.

  • Liu, D., Fu, M. S., & Wu, G. L. (2006). Appearance and Weight Perception With Psychological Factors Among Adolescents. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medicine and Brain Science, 8, 742–743. (in Chinese)

  • Liu, J., Bowker, J. C., Coplan, R. J., Yang, P., Li, D., & Chen, X. (2019). Evaluating Links Among Shyness, Peer Relations, and Internalizing Problems in Chinese Young Adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29(3), 696–709.

  • Liu, X. Y., Zhang, Q. Q., Liu, S. S., He, R., & Zhu, C. Y. (2023a). Effect of Social Exclusion on Sleep Quality in College Students: The Mediating Role of Loneliness and the Moderating Role of Emotion Regulation. China Journal of Health Psychology, 31, 1424–1428. (in Chinese)

  • Liu, P., Mo, B., Yang, P., Li, D., Liu, S., & Cai, D. (2023b). Values Mediated Emotional Adjustment by Emotion Regulation: A Longitudinal Study Among Adolescents in China. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1093072.

  • Liu, P., Wang, X., Li, D., Zhang, R., Li, H., & Han, J. (2021). The Benefits of Self-Transcendence: Examining the Role of Values on Mental Health Among Adolescents Across Regions in China. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 630420.

  • Liu, X., Yang, Y., Wu, H., Kong, X., & Cui, L. (2022). The Roles of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Anxiety in the Relationship Between Self-Compassion and Loneliness: A Serial Mediation Model. Current Psychology, 41(8), 5249–5257.

  • Liu, Y. & Yan, Z. Y. (2016). Peer Relationship of Middle School Students and Their Internet Addiction: The Mediation Effect of Loneliness. Journal of Jimei University (Education Science Edition), 17(3), 37–40. (in Chinese)

  • London, B., Downey, G., & Bonica, C. (2007). Social Causes and Consequences of Rejection Sensitivity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17(3), 481–505.

  • Luyckx, K., Goossens, E., Rassart, J., Apers, S., Vanhalst, J., & Moons, P. (2014). Parental Support, Internalizing Symptoms, Perceived Health Status, and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Congenital Heart Disease: Influences and Reciprocal Effects. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 37(1), 145–155.

  • Ma, C. M. S. (2018). A Latent Profile Analysis of Internet Use and Its Association With Psychological Well-Being Outcomes Among Hong Kong Chinese Early Adolescents. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 13(3), 727–743.

  • Ma, C., Ma, Y., Wang, Y., & Lan, X. (2019). Empathy and Psychosocial Adjustment in Tibetan and Han Adolescents: A Person-Centered Approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1896.

  • Ma, T. L., Chow, C. M., & Chen, W. T. (2018). The Moderation of Culturally Normative Coping Strategies on Taiwanese Adolescent Peer Victimization and Psychological Distress. Journal of School Psychology, 70, 89–104.

  • Ma, T.-L., & Chen, W.-T. (2019). The Benefits of Being Defended: Perceived Bystander Participant Roles and Victims’ Emotional and Psychosocial Adjustment. Journal of School Violence, 18(1), 77–91.

  • MacDonald, K. B., & Schermer, J. A. (2021). Loneliness Unlocked: Associations With Smartphone Use and Personality. Acta Psychologica, 221, 103454.

  • Mahon, N. E., Yarcheski, A., & Yarcheski, T. J. (2001). Mental Health Variables and Positive Health Practices in Early Adolescents. Psychological Reports, 88(3), 1023–1030.

  • Mahon, N. E., Yarcheski, A., Yarcheski, T. J., Cannella, B. L., & Hanks, M. M. (2006). A Meta-Analytic Study of Predictors for Loneliness During Adolescence. Nursing Research, 55(5), 308–315.

  • Mak, H. W., Fosco, G. M., & Feinberg, M. E. (2018). The Role of Family for Youth Friendships: Examining a Social Anxiety Mechanism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(2), 306–320.

  • Masi, C. M., Chen, H.-Y., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). A Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Loneliness. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15(3), 219–266.

  • Matthes, J., Stevic, A., Koban, K., Thomas, M. F., Forrai, M., & Karsay, K. (2023). Fear of Missing Out, Reflective Smartphone Disengagement, and Loneliness in Late Adolescents. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 26(10), 731–738.

  • Matthews, T., Danese, A., Wertz, J., Odgers, C. L., Ambler, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Arseneault, L. (2016). Social Isolation, Loneliness and Depression in Young Adulthood: A Behavioural Genetic Analysis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 51(3), 339–348.

  • Mo, Q. L., & Bai, B. Y. (2022). Height Dissatisfaction and Loneliness Among Adolescents: The Chain Mediating Role of Social Anxiety and Social Support. Current Psychol, 42, 27296–27304.

  • Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Group, T. P. (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLOS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097.

  • Moore, D., & Schultz, N. R. (1983). Loneliness at Adolescence: Correlates, Attributions, and Coping. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 12(2), 95–100.

  • Morin, A. H. (2022). Promoting Positive Social Classroom Environments to Enhance Students’ Mental Health? Effectiveness of a School-Based Programme in Norway. International Journal of Educational Research, 113, 101966.

  • Mou, L., Lei, W., Chen, J., Zhang, R., Liu, K., & Liang, X. (2019). Mediating Effect of Interpersonal Relations on Negative Emotions and Dysmenorrhea in Female Adolescents. General Psychiatry, 32(1), e100008.

  • Mounts, N. S. (2004). Contributions of Parenting and Campus Climate to Freshmen Adjustment in a Multiethnic Sample. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(4), 468–491.

  • Mounts, N. S., Valentiner, D. P., Anderson, K. L., & Boswell, M. K. (2006). Shyness, Sociability, and Parental Support for the College Transition: Relation to Adolescents’ Adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(1), 71–80.

  • Mousavi, S. Z., Barry, C. T., & Halter, B. M. (2023). Relations of Adolescent Knowledge of COVID-19, Social Media Engagement, and Experiences During Quarantine/Lockdown With Well-Being. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 32(1), 110–121.

  • Mun, I. B. (2022). A Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Parental Anxiety on Mobile Game Addiction in Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Adolescent Anxiety and Loneliness. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 22, 560–577.

  • Musetti, A., Corsano, P., Boursier, V., & Schimmenti, A. (2020). Problematic Internet Use in Lonely Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Detachment From Parents. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation, 17(1), 3–10.

  • Neto, F., & Barros, J. (2000). Psychosocial Concomitants of Loneliness Among Students of Cape Verde and Portugal. The Journal of Psychology, 134(5), 503–514.

  • Odaci, H., & Kalkan, M. (2010). Problematic Internet Use, Loneliness and Dating Anxiety Among Young Adult University Students. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1091–1097.

  • Okajima, I., Honda, Y., Semba, O., Kiyota, Y., & Tani, Y. (2022). Effects of Covid-19-Related Anxiety and Sleep Problems on Loneliness and Feelings of School Refusal in Adolescents. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, 918417.

  • Ophir, Y., Asterhan, C. S. C., & Schwarz, B. B. (2019). The Digital Footprints of Adolescent Depression, Social Rejection and Victimization of Bullying on Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 91, 62–71.

  • Oriol, X., Miranda, R., Amutio, A., Acosta, H. C., Mendoza, M. C., & Torres-Vallejos, J. (2017). Violent Relationships at the Social-Ecological Level: A Multi-Mediation Model to Predict Adolescent Victimization by Peers, Bullying and Depression in Early and Late Adolescence. PLoS One, 12(3), e0174139.

  • Öztekin, C., & Öztekin, A. (2020). The Association of Depression, Loneliness and Internet Addiction Levels in Patients With Acne Vulgaris. Biopsychosoc Med, 14(1), 17.

  • Padmanabhanunni, A., & Pretorius, T. (2021). The Loneliness-Life Satisfaction Relationship: The Parallel and Serial Mediating Role of Hopelessness, Depression and Ego-Resilience Among Young Adults in South Africa During COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), 3613.

  • Parashkouh, N. N., Mirhadian, L., EmamiSigaroudi, A., Leili, E. K., & Karimi, H. (2018). Addiction to the Internet and Mobile Phones and Its Relationship With Loneliness in Iranian Adolescents. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 33(1), 20180035.

  • Park, C., Majeed, A., Gill, H., Tamura, J., Ho, R. C., Mansur, R. B., Nasri, F., Lee, Y., Rosenblat, J. D., Wong, E., & McIntyre, R. S. (2020). The Effect of Loneliness on Distinct Health Outcomes: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychiatry Research, 294, 113514.

  • Peleg, O. (2012). Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation Among Adolescents at Three Age Levels. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 15(2), 207–218.

  • Peng, C., Wang, M., Cheng, J., Tan, Y., Huang, Y., Rong, F., Kang, C., Ding, H., & Yu, Y. (2021b). Association Between Internet Addiction and Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Plans, and Suicide Attempts Among Chinese Adolescents With and Without Parental Migration. Computers in Human Behavior, 125, 106949.

  • Peng, C., Wang, M., Cheng, J., Tan, Y., Huang, Y., Rong, F., Kang, C., Ding, H., Wang, Y., & Yu, Y. (2021a). Mediation of Internet Addiction on Association Between Childhood Maltreatment and Suicidal Behaviours Among Chinese Adolescents. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 30, E64.

  • Peng, Y., Mao, H., Zhang, B., Zhang, A., Zeng, Y., Zeng, C., & Li, J. (2022). Depression and Loneliness as Mediators Between Social Support and Mobile Phone Addiction. Psychiatria Danubina, 34(3), 475–482.

  • Peng, Y., Zhu, L., & Wang, Z. H. (2018). Association Between Parental Emotion Expressiveness and Adolescents’ Behavior Problem: The Mediating Role of the Parent-Child Attachment and Loneliness. Psychological Development and Education, 34(4), 504–512. (in Chinese)

  • Perlman, D., & Peplau, L. A. (1984). Loneliness Research: A Survey of Empirical Findings. In L. A. Peplau & S. E. Goldston (Eds.), Preventing the harmful consequences of severe and persistent loneliness (pp. 13–46). National Institute of Mental Health.

  • Perron, J. L., Cleverley, K., & Kidd, S. A. (2014). Resilience, Loneliness, and Psychological Distress Among Homeless Youth. Archives of psychiatric nursing, 28(4), 226–229.

  • Pfetsch, J. S., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., & Lietz, K. (2022). Can Acting out Online Improve Adolescents’ Well-Being During Contact Restrictions? A First Insight Into the Dysfunctional Role of Cyberbullying and the Need to Belong in Well-Being During COVID-19 Pandemic-Related Contact Restrictions. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 787449.

  • Philbrook, L. E., Chen, G. J.-X., Decker, R. A., & Khaner, L. B. (2023). Loneliness and Maladjustment in Young Adults: The Protective Effects of High Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Sleep Quality. Emerging Adulthood, 11(4), 994–1005.

  • Piko, B. F., Prievara, D. K., & Mellor, D. (2017). Aggressive and Stressed? Youth’s Aggressive Behaviors in Light of Their Internet Use, Sensation Seeking, Stress and Social Feelings. Children and Youth Services Review, 77, 55–61.

  • Polo, A. J., & López, S. R. (2009). Culture, Context, and the Internalizing Distress of Mexican American Youth. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(2), 273–285.

  • Pretorius, T., & Padmanabhanunni, A. (2021). A Looming Mental Health Pandemic in the Time of COVID-19? Role of Fortitude in the Interrelationship Between Loneliness, Anxiety, and Life Satisfaction Among Young Adults. South African Journal of Psychology, 51(2), 256–268.

  • Prinstein, M. J., & La Greca, A. M. (2002). Peer Crowd Affiliation and Internalizing Distress in Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Follow-Back Study. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(3), 325–351.

  • Pustejovsky, J. E. (2015). Measurement-Comparable Effect Sizes for Single-Case Studies of Free-Operant Behavior. Psychological Methods, 20(3), 342–359.

  • Qi, J. D., Huang, D. W., Liu, X., & Ying, T. Z. (2020). The Status of Suicidal Ideation and the Role of Networking Self-Efficacy and Loneliness Among Junior Middle School Students. Chinese Journal of Health Education, 36(5), 450–454. (in Chinese)

  • Qin, X. Q. & Li, X. (2022). Cyberbullying and Adolescent Depression: Roles of Loneliness and School Connection. Journal of Bio-education, 10(6), 473–478. (in Chinese)

  • Qu, Y. W. J., Zhou, L. P., & Yu, J. (2023). The Relationship Between Emotional Neglect and Adolescent Depression: A Chain Mediator of Rejection Sensitivity and Loneliness. Xinli yuekan, 18(5), 48–50, 54. (in Chinese)

  • Qualter, P., Quinton, S. J., Wagner, H., & Brown, S. (2009). Loneliness, Interpersonal Distrust, and Alexithymia in University Students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(6), 1461–1479.

  • Quintana-Orts, C., Rey, L., & Neto, F. (2021). Are Loneliness and Emotional Intelligence Important Factors for Adolescents? Understanding the Influence of Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimisation on Suicidal Ideation. Psychosocial Intervention, 30(2), 67–74.

  • Raes, F., Bastin, M., Pede, T., Belmans, E., Goossens, L., & Vanhalst, J. (2020). Repetitive Negative Thinking Outperforms Loneliness and Lack of Social Connectedness as a Predictor of Prospective Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, 8, 149–156.

  • Rajkumar, R. P. (2023). Cultural Values and Changes in Happiness in 78 Countries During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Analysis of Data From the World Happiness Reports. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1090340.

  • Ren, Y., Wu, X., Zou, S., & Wang, X. (2023). The Integral Contributions of Parental Involvement and Parenting Style to Adolescent Adjustments: A Regression Mixture Analysis. Current Psychology, 43(2), 1369–1380.

  • Rew, L., Taylor-Seehafer, M., Thomas, N. Y., & Yockey, R. D. (2001). Correlates of Resilience in Homeless Adolescents. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33(1), 33–40.

  • Rogers, A. A., Ha, T., & Ockey, S. (2021). Adolescents’ Perceived Socio-Emotional Impact of COVID-19 and Implications for Mental Health: Results From a U.S.-Based Mixed-Methods Study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 68(1), 43–52.

  • Rosenthal, R. (1979). The File Drawer Problem and Tolerance for Null Results. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 638–641.

  • Rotenberg, K. J., McDougall, P., Boulton, M. J., Vaillancourt, T., Fox, C., & Hymel, S. (2004). Cross-sectional andLongitudinal Relations Among Peer-reported Trustworthiness, SocialRelationships, and Psychological Adjustment in Children and Early Adolescentsfrom the United Kingdom and Canada. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88(1), 46–67.

  • Rowe, S. L., Gembeck, M. J., Rudolph, J., & Nesdale, D. (2015). A Longitudinal Study of Rejecting and Autonomy-Restrictive Parenting, Rejection Sensitivity, and Socioemotional Symptoms in Early Adolescents. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 43(6), 1107–1118.

  • Rutter, L. A., Thompson, H. M., Howard, J., Riley, T. N., De Jesús-Romero, R., & Lorenzo-Luaces, L. (2021). Social Media Use, Physical Activity, and Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional Analysis. JMIR Mental Health, 8(9), e26134.

  • Sarıalioğlu, A., Atay, T., & Arıkan, D. (2022). Determining the Relationship Between Loneliness and Internet Addiction Among Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 63, 117–124.

  • Savci, M., & Aysan, F. (2018). #Interpersonal Competence, Loneliness, Fear of Negative Evaluation, and Reward and Punishment as Predictors of Social Media Addiction and Their Accuracy in Classifying Adolescent Social Media Users and Non-users. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 5(3), 455–471.

  • Schacter, H. L., & Juvonen, J. (2018). You’ve Got a Friend(LY School): Can School Prosocial Norms and Friends Similarly Protect Victims From Distress? Social Development, 27(3), 636–651.

  • Schäfer, S. K., Sopp, M. R., Fuchs, A., Kotzur, M., Maahs, L., & Michael, T. (2023). The Relationship Between Sense of Coherence and Mental Health Problems From Childhood to Young Adulthood: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 325, 804–816.

  • Schinka, K. C., van Dulmen, M. H., Mata, A. D., Bossarte, R., & Swahn, M. (2013). Psychosocial Predictors and Outcomes of Loneliness Trajectories From Childhood to Early Adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 36(6), 1251–1260.

  • Sebokova, G., & Popelkova, M. (2016). Self-Consciousness and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Moderating Effect of Family Variables. Studia Psychologica, 58(2), 105–121.

  • Segrin, C., McNelis, M., & Pavlich, C. A. (2018). Indirect Effects of Loneliness on Substance Use Through Stress. Health Communication, 33(5), 513–518.

  • Shang, J., Jin, W. J., Geng, Y. G., Zhang, Y. W., Zhan, T. T., Shi, L. P., & Yu, J. J. (2022). Dark Triad and Depression of Middle School Students: Chain Mediator of Social Ostracism and Self-Esteem. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 6, 1282–1286, 1291. (in Chinese)

  • Shi, X., & Wang, R. (2023). School Victimization and Internet Addiction Among Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Life Satisfaction and Loneliness. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1059486.

  • Shi, X., Wang, J., & Zou, H. (2017). Family Functioning and Internet Addiction Among Chinese Adolescents: The Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem and Loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 201–210.

  • Siddaway, A. P., Wood, A. M., & Hedges, L. V. (2019). How to Do a Systematic Review: A Best Practice Guide for Conducting and Reporting Narrative Reviews, Meta-Analyses, and Meta-Syntheses. Annual Review of Psychology, 70(1), 747–770.

  • Smith, D. S., Schacter, H. L., Enders, C., & Juvonen, J. (2018). Gender Norm Salience Across Middle Schools: Contextual Variations in Associations Between Gender Typicality and Socioemotional Distress. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(5), 947–960.

  • Solmi, M., Veronese, N., Galvano, D., Favaro, A., Ostinelli, E. G., Noventa, V., Favaretto, E., Tudor, F., Finessi, M., Shin, J. I., Smith, L., Koyanagi, A., Cester, A., Bolzetta, F., Cotroneo, A., Maggi, S., Demurtas, J., De Leo, D., & Trabucchi, M. (2020). Factors Associated With Loneliness: An Umbrella Review of Observational Studies. Journal of Affective Disorders, 271, 131–138.

  • Song, C. L., Wang, X. L., Wang, Y. F., & Cao, X. H. (2007). The Relationship of Adolescent Internet Addiction to Self-Esteem, Loneliness, and Fear of Denial. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medical Science, 16(10), 940–941. (in Chinese)

  • Spithoven, A. W. M., Vanhalst, J., Lodder, G., Bijttebier, P., & Goossens, L. (2017a). Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies Regarding Adolescents’ Peer-Related Loneliness: Associations With Adolescent Adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(5), 1104–1116.

  • Spithoven, A. W., Lodder, G. M., Goossens, L., Bijttebier, P., Bastin, M., Verhagen, M., & Scholte, R. H. (2017b). Adolescents’ Loneliness and Depression Associated With Friendship Experiences and Well-Being: A Person-Centered Approach. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(2), 429–441.

  • Sterne, J. A. C., Gavaghan, D., & Egger, M. (2000). Publication and Related Bias in Meta-Analysis: Power of Statistical Tests and Prevalence in the Literature. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 53(11), 1119–1129.

  • Storch, E. A., & Masia-Warner, C. (2004). The Relationship of Peer Victimization to Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adolescent Females. Journal of Adolescence, 27(3), 351–362.

  • Storch, E. A., Larson, M. J., Ehrenreich-May, J., Arnold, E. B., Jones, A. M., Renno, P., Fujii, C., Lewin, A. B., Mutch, P. J., Murphy, T. K., & Wood, J. J. (2012). Peer Victimization in Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Co-occurring Anxiety: Relations With Psychopathology and Loneliness. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 24(6), 575–590.

  • Storch, E. A., Roth, D. A., Coles, M. E., Heimberg, R. G., Bravata, E. A., & Moser, J. (2004). The Measurement and Impact of Childhood Teasing in a Sample of Young Adults. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 18(5), 681–694.

  • Suarez-Relinque, C., Del Moral, G., Leon-Moreno, C., & Evaristo Callejas-Jeronimo, J. (2022). Emotional Loneliness, Suicidal Ideation, and Alexithymia in Adolescents Who Commit Child-To-Parent Violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 38(3–4), 4007–4933.

  • Sun, H., Yu, Y., Wang, C. Y., & Huang, L. P. (2013). The Relationship Between Parental Support and Pathological Internet Use: The Mediating Role of Loneliness. Journal of Weifang Engineering Vocational College, 26(4), 66–70. (in Chinese)

  • Sun, L. J., Heng, S. P., Niu, G. F., Li, J. Y., Du, H. Q., & Hu, X. E. (2017). Association Between Childhood Psychological Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: The Mediating Role of the Security and Loneliness. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 25, 902–906. (in Chinese)

  • Sun, M. Y. & Liu, K. (2018). Analysis of the mediating role of loneliness between social anxiety and depressive symptoms in secondary school students. Chinese Journal of Health Statistics, 35(6), 926–928. CNKI:SUN:ZGWT.0.2018-06-034 (in Chinese)

  • Swirsky, J. M., & Xie, H. (2021). Peer-Related Factors as Moderators Between Overt and Social Victimization and Adjustment Outcomes in Early Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 50(2), 286–297.

  • Taliaferro, L. A., Rienzo, B. A., Miller, M. D., Pigg, R. M., & Dodd, V. J. (2010). Potential Mediating Pathways Through Which Sports Participation Relates to Reduced Risk of Suicidal Ideation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(3), 328–339.

  • Tang, X., Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2021). School Burnout and Psychosocial Problems Among Adolescents: Grit as a Resilience Factor. Journal of Adolescence, 86, 77–89.

  • Taras, V., Kirkman, B. L., & Steel, P. (2010). Examining the Impact of Culture’s Consequences: A Three-Decade, Multilevel, Meta-Analytic Review of Hofstede’s Cultural Value Dimensions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), 405–439.

  • Tatli, C., & Ergin, D. A. (2023). Multigroup Analysis of the Relationship Loneliness, Fear of Missing Out, Problematic Internet Usage and Peer Perception in Gifted and Normally Developing Adolescents. Current Psychology, 42(3), 2325–2334.

  • Thakur, H., Stutts, M., Choi, J. W., Temple, J. R., & Cohen, J. R. (2022). Adolescent Loneliness During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Pre-pandemic Risk Factors. Child Indicators Research, 16(2), 617–639.

  • The Lancet. (2023). Loneliness as a Health Issue. The Lancet, 402(10396), 79.

  • Thi Truc Quynh, H., & Hung Thanh, N. (2023). Self- Disclosure on Social Networking Sites, Loneliness and Psychological Distress Among Adolescents: The Mediating Effect of Cyber Victimization. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20(1), 172–188.

  • Thomas, K. K., & Bowker, J. C. (2015). Rejection Sensitivity and Adjustment During Adolescence: Do Friendship Self-Silencing and Parent Support Matter? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(3), 608–616.

  • Tian, L. M., Chen, G. H., Wang, S. Q., Liu, H. J., & Zhang, W. X. (2012). Effects of Parental Support and Friendship Support on Loneliness and Depression During Early and Middle Adolescence. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 44(7), 944–956. (in Chinese)

  • Tian, Y. & Wang, R. S. (2016). Correlation of Life Events,Coping Styles,Social Support and Loneliness Amongvocational College Students. China Journal of Health Psychology, 24(8), 1237–1240. (in Chinese)

  • Tian, Y., Qin, N., Cao, S., & Gao, F. (2021). Reciprocal Associations Between Shyness, Self-Esteem, Loneliness, Depression and Internet Addiction in Chinese Adolescents. Addiction Research & Theory, 29(2), 98–110. (in Chinese)

  • Tipton, E. (2015). Small Sample Adjustments for Robust Variance Estimation With Meta-Regression. Psychological Methods, 20(3), 375–393.

  • Tobore, T. O. (2023). On Power and Its Corrupting Effects: The Effects of Power on Human Behavior and the Limits of Accountability Systems. Communicative & Integrative Biology, 16(1), 2246793.

  • Tonković, Ž., Cepić, D., & Puzek, I. (2021). Loneliness and Social Networks in Europe: Issp Data From 13 European Countries. Croatian Sociological Review, 51(3), 381–407.

  • Tóth-Király, I., Morin, A. J. S., Hietajärvi, L., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2021). Longitudinal Trajectories, Social and Individual Antecedents, and Outcomes of Problematic Internet Use Among Late Adolescents. Child Development, 92(4), e653–e673.

  • Turhan Gürbüz, P., Çoban, Ö. G., Erdoğan, A., Kopuz, H. Y., Adanir, A. S., & Önder, A. (2021). Evaluation of Internet Gaming Disorder, Social Media Addiction, and Levels of Loneliness in Adolescents and Youth With Substance Use. Substance Use & Misuse, 56(12), 1874–1879.

  • Ullrich, R., Becker, M., & Scharf, J. (2022). The Development of Gender Role Attitudes During Adolescence: Effects of Sex, Socioeconomic Background, and Cognitive Abilities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 51(11), 2114–2129.

  • Van Den Noortgate, W., López-López, J. A., Marín-Martínez, F., & Sánchez-Meca, J. (2013). Three-Level Meta-Analysis of Dependent Effect Sizes. Behavior Research Methods, 45(2), 576–594.

  • van der Aa, N., Overbeek, G., Engels, R. C., Scholte, R. H., Meerkerk, G. J., & Van den Eijnden, R. J. (2009). Daily and Compulsive Internet Use and Well-Being in Adolescence: A Diathesis-Stress Model Based on Big Five Personality Traits. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(6), 765–776.

  • Vanhalst, J., Gibb, B. E., & Prinstein, M. J. (2017). Lonely Adolescents Exhibit Heightened Sensitivity for Facial Cues of Emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 31(2), 377–383.

  • Vanhalst, J., Goossens, L., Luyckx, K., Scholte, R. H., & Engels, R. C. (2013). The Development of Loneliness From Mid- To Late Adolescence: Trajectory Classes, Personality Traits, and Psychosocial Functioning. Journal of Adolescence, 36(6), 1305–1312.

  • Vanhalst, J., Klimstra, T. A., Luyckx, K., Scholte, R. H., Engels, R. C., & Goossens, L. (2012). The Interplay of Loneliness and Depressive Symptoms Across Adolescence: Exploring the Role of Personality Traits. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(6), 776–787.

  • Vanhasselt, V. B., Null, J. A., Kempton, T., & Bukstein, O. G. (1993). Social Skills and Depression in Adolescent Substance-Abusers. Addictive Behaviors, 18(1), 9–18.

  • Venuleo, C., Ferrante, L., & Rollo, S. (2021). Facing Life Problems Through the Internet. The Link Between Psychosocial Malaise and Problematic Internet Use in an Adolescent Sample. Journal of Gambling Issues, 46, 197–131.

  • Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting Meta-Analyses in R With the Metafor Package. Journal of Statistical Software, 36(3), 1–48.

  • Viechtbauer, W., & Cheung, M. W.-L. (2010). Outlier and Influence Diagnostics for Meta-Analysis. Research Synthesis Methods, 1(2), 112–125.

  • Wang, H. Y., Sigerson, L., Jiang, H., & Cheng, C. (2018). Psychometric Properties and Factor Structures of Chinese Smartphone Addiction Inventory: Test of Two Models. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1411.

  • Wang, J. L., Sheng, J. R., & Wang, H. Z. (2019). The Association Between Mobile Game Addiction and Depression, Social Anxiety, and Loneliness. Front Public Health, 7, 247.

  • Wang, J., Lloyd-Evans, B., Marston, L., Mann, F., Ma, R., & Johnson, S. (2020). Loneliness as a Predictor of Outcomes in Mental Disorders Among People Who Have Experienced a Mental Health Crisis: A 4-Month Prospective Study. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 249.

  • Wang, Q. & Fan, W. Q. (2022). Parent-Child Attachment and Adolescents’ Mobile Phone Addiction: The Chain Mediation of Emotion Regulation Self-Efficacy and Loneliness. Psychological Communications, 5(4), 256–263. (in Chinese)

  • Wang, Q., Wang, H., & Liu, X. (2020a). Loneliness, Non-suicidal Self-Injury, and Friendship Quality Among Chinese Left-Behind Adolescents: The Role of Parent-Child Cohesion. Journal of Affective Disorders, 271, 193–200.

  • Wang, Y., Tian, L., Guo, L., & Huebner, E. S. (2020b). Family Dysfunction and Adolescents’ Anxiety and Depression: A Multiple Mediation Model. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 66, 101090.

  • Wang, Z., Chen, X., Liu, J., Bullock, A., Li, D., Chen, X., & French, D. (2020c). Moderating Role of Conflict Resolution Strategies in the Links Between Peer Victimization and Psychological Adjustment Among Youth. Journal of Adolescence, 79, 184–192.

  • Wang, W. W. (2023). The Relationship Between Loneliness and Depression of Students in Vocational College of Art: The Mesmeric Effect of Social Support. Journal of Taiyuan University (Social Science Edition), 24(3), 76–85. (in Chinese)

  • Wang, W., Li, Z., Lei, L., & Fu, X. J. (2017). The Effect of Mobile Social Media Overuse on Adolescents’ Loneliness, Anxiety and Sleep Quality. Medicine & Philosophy(B), 38(4), 71–74. (in Chinese)

  • Wang, W., Wang, S. N., Cheng, H. B., Wang, Y. H., & Li, Y. X. (2021). The Mediation Effect of Fathers’ Parental Burnout in Parenting Stresses and Teenagers’ Mental Health. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 4, 858–861. (in Chinese)

  • Wang, X. Y. & Deng, S. S. (2008). The Investigation on Different Kinds of Undergraduates’ Psychological Stress. Health Research, 4, 254–258. CNKI:SUN:HZYG.0.2008-04-008 (in Chinese)

  • Wang, X., Xie, R., Ding, W., Song, S., Wu, W., Wang, X., & Li, W. (2023). Childhood Abuse and Adolescent School Bullying: The Mediating Roles of Perceived Social Support and Loneliness. Journal of Child and Family Studies,32, 3120–3133.

  • Wang, Y. L., Li, R., Wang, Z. Y., & He, J. (2023). The Relationship Between Social Exclusion and Suicidal Ideation Among Left-Behind Adolescents: A Moderated-Mediating Model. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2, 341–344, 321. (in Chinese)

  • Ward, A., Arola, N., Bohnert, A., & Lieb, R. (2017). Social-Emotional Adjustment and Pet Ownership Among Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Communication Disorders, 65, 35–42.

  • Watson, J., & Nesdale, D. (2012). Rejection Sensitivity, Social Withdrawal, and Loneliness in Young Adults. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(8), 1984–2005.

  • Welch, V., Ghogomu, E. T., Barbeau, V. I., Dowling, S., Doyle, R., Beveridge, E., Boulton, E., Desai, P., Huang, J., Elmestekawy, N., Hussain, T., Wadhwani, A., Boutin, S., Haitas, N., Kneale, D., Salzwedel, D. M., Simard, R., Hébert, P., & Mikton, C. (2023). Digital Interventions to Reduce Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults: An Evidence and Gap Map. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 19(4), e1369.

  • Witvliet, M., Brendgen, M., van Lier, P. A., Koot, H. M., & Vitaro, F. (2010). Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Prediction From Clique Isolation, Loneliness, and Perceived Social Acceptance. Journal of abnormal child psychology, 38(8), 1045–1056.

  • Woznicki, N., Arriaga, A. S., Caporale-Berkowitz, N. A., & Parent, M. C. (2021). Parasocial Relationships and Depression Among LGBQ Emerging Adults Living With Their Parents During COVID-19: The Potential for Online Support. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 8(2), 228–237.

  • Wright, M. F. (2015). Cyber Victimization and Adjustment Difficulties: The Mediation of Chinese and American Adolescents’ Digital Technology Usage. Cyberpsychology-Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 9(1), 7.

  • Wright, M. F. (2016). The Buffering Effect of Parental Mediation in the Relationship Between Adolescents’ Cyberbullying Victimisation and Adjustment Difficulties. Child Abuse Review, 25(5), 345–358.

  • Wright, M. F. (2017). Parental Mediation, Cyber Victimization, Adjustment Difficulties, and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cyberpsychology-Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 11(1), 6.

  • Wright, M. F., & Wachs, S. (2019). Adolescents’ Psychological Consequences and Cyber Victimization: The Moderation of School-Belongingness and Ethnicity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(14), 2493.

  • Wu, A. M. S., Lau, J. T. F., Mo, P. K. H., & Lau, M. M. C. (2018). Psychological Distress and Resilience as Risk and Protective Factors of Psychoactive Substance Use Among Chinese Nonengaged Youth. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 28(2), 49–64.

  • Xie, L. P. & Zou, W. X. (2018). Mediation of Anxiety and Loneliness in the Association Between Life Events and Shyness. Chinese Journal of School Health, 39, 397–400. (in Chinese)

  • Xu, G., Bullock, A., Yang, P., & Liu, J. (2021). Psychological Control and Internalizing Problems: The Mediating Role of Mother-Child Relationship Quality. Parenting-Science and Practice, 21(2), 108–117.

  • Xu, Y. & Lin, D. H. (2015). Family Stress and Adolescents’ Depression, Loneliness and Happiness: The Compensatory and Moderating Roles of Family Resilience. Psychological Development and Education, 31(5), 594–602. (in Chinese)

  • Yang, K., & Victor, C. (2011). Age and Loneliness in 25 European Nations. Ageing & Society, 31(8), 1368–1388.

  • Yang, L. P., Tang, T. G., Chen, H., & Xie, X. Y. (2023). The Relationship Between Psychological Abuse and Loneliness in Adolescent Children: The Mediating Role of Self-Differentiation. Mental Health Education in Primary and Secondary School, 16, 15–19. (in Chinese)

  • Yang, P., Xu, G., Zhao, S., Li, D., Liu, J., & Chen, X. (2021a). Shyness and Psychological Maladjustment in Chinese Adolescents: Selection and Influence Processes in Friendship Networks. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 50(10), 2108–2121.

  • Yang, X., Hu, H., Zhao, C., Xu, H., Tu, X., & Zhang, G. (2021b). A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Smart Phone Addiction and Depressive Symptoms and Potential Risk Factors Among Chinese College Students. BMC Psychiatry, 21(1), 252.

  • Yang, X. D., Li, Y. J., & Wei, R. (2022a). Examining the Influence of Family Relationship on Adolescents’ Psychological Well-Being in the Context of Mobile Phone Use. Global Journal of Media Studies, 9(3), 35–57. (in Chinese)

  • Yang, Y., Shields, G. S., Zhang, Y., Wu, H., Chen, H., & Romer, A. L. (2022b). Child Executive Function and Future Externalizing and Internalizing Problems: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Longitudinal Studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 97, 102194.

  • Yao, Y. Y. & Jiao, L. Z. (2020). The Mediating Role of Loneliness Among Social Support and Public Fear of Normal University Students. Journal of Changzhi University, 37(1), 99–102. (in Chinese)

  • Yao, Y., Su, Y. Q., Zhang, Z. H., Bai, D. Q., & Sheng, J. (2023). Peer Relationship and Internet Addiction Among College Students in the Background of COVID19: The Chain Mediating Role of Loneliness and Perceived Social Support. Xinli yuekan, 18(1), 45–49. (in Chinese)

  • Yildiz, M. A. (2016). Multiple Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies in the Relationship Between Loneliness and Positivity in Adolescents. Egitim Ve Bilim-Education and Science, 41(186), 217–231.

  • Yilmaz, M. B., Orhan, F., & Zeren, S. G. (2022). Adolescent Emotion Scale for Online Lessons: A Study From Turkey. Education and information technologies, 27(3), 3403–3420.

  • Yin, Y., Cai, X., Ouyang, M., Li, S., Li, X., & Wang, P. (2023). FOMO and the Brain: Loneliness and Problematic Social Networking Site Use Mediate the Association Between the Topology of the Resting-State Eeg Brain Network and Fear of Missing Out. Computers in Human Behavior, 141, 107624.

  • Yin, Z. J., Meng, F., & Xuan, B. (2022). Effects of Fear of Missing out on Freshmen’s Mobile Phone Dependence: Mediating Role of Loneliness and Resilience. Journal of Bio-education, 10(3), 201–205. (in Chinese)

  • Yuan, B., Chen, W., & Wang, D. Y. (2023). Cross-Lagged Analysis of Loneliness and Drug Abuse Risk in Adolescents. Health Research, 43(2), 180–184. (in Chinese)

  • Yurdagul, C., Kircaburun, K., Emirtekin, E., Wang, P., & Griffiths, M. D. (2021). Psychopathological Consequences Related to Problematic Instagram Use Among Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Body Image Dissatisfaction and Moderating Role of Gender. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19(5), 1385–1397.

  • Zeng, W., Ye, K., Hu, Y., & Ma, Z. (2016). Explicit Self-Esteem, Loneliness, and Pathological Internet Use Among Chinese Adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality, 44(6), 965–972.

  • Zhang, B., Zhang, W., Sun, L., Jiang, C., Zhou, Y., & He, K. (2023). Relationship Between Alexithymia, Loneliness, Resilience and Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents With Depression: A Multi-Center Study. BMC Psychiatry, 23(1), 445.

  • Zhang, D., Wu, X. C., & Tan, Y. X. (2021a). The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Internet Addictionsymptoms in Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Sensitivity to Punishment Stimuli and Loneliness and the Moderating Role of Gender. Journal of Psychological Science, 44(5), 1134–1140. (in Chinese)

  • Zhang, Y., Li, Z., Tan, Y., Zhang, X., Zhao, Q., & Chen, X. (2021b). The Influence of Personality Traits on School Bullying: A Moderated Mediation Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 650070.

  • Zhang, H. X. (2016). Relationship Between Stress Life Events, Loneliness and Suicidal Ideation Among University Students. Occupation and Health, 32(14), 1976–1979. (in Chinese)

  • Zhang, J. T., Liu, Q. X., Deng, L. Y., Fang, X. Y., Liu, Z. Y., & Lan, J. (2011). Parents-Adolescents Relations and Adolescent’s Internet Addiction: The Mediation Effect of Loneliness. Psychological Development and Education, 27(6), 641–647. (in Chinese)

  • Zhang, L. L., Wang, W. Z., Wang, X., & Hu, S. (2023). Influence of Loneliness on Internet Addiction Among Rural Left-Behind Children in Dezhou City and Regulation of Social Anxiety and Sense of Security. Occupation and Health, 39(5), 653–656. (in Chinese)

  • Zhang, X. Y. (2023). The Effects of Online Social Exclusion on Adolescents’ Social Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem. Mental Health Education in Primary and Secondary School, 14, 17–21. (in Chinese)

  • Zhang, X., Li, C., & Ding, N. (2022). How Peer Victimization Predicts Mental Well-Being and Disruptive Behaviors: Exploring Serial Mediating Mechanisms in the Digital Age. Current Psychology, 42(35), 31634–31645.

  • Zhang, X., Li, J., Xie, F., Chen, X., Xu, W., & Hudson, N. W. (2022). The Relationship Between Adult Attachment and Mental Health: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 123(5), 1089–1137.

  • Zhang, Y., Han, X., Zhang, S. S., & Kai, W. (2020). The Influence of Campus Exclusion on the Behavior of Externalization Problems of Junior Middle School Students: A Mediating Effect With Regulation. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 18(3), 354–360. (in Chinese)

  • Zhao, J., Li, Q., Wang, L., Lin, L., & Zhang, W. (2019). Latent Profile Analysis of Left-Behind Adolescents’ Psychosocial Adaptation in Rural China. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(6), 1146–1160.

  • Zhao, X., Zhang, P., Chen, L., & Zhou, R. (2014). Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Attentional Bias to Threat and Social Anxiety in Adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 71, 108–112.

  • Zhou, C. Y., Dai, L. J., He, Y. P., & Zhu, J. F. (2023a). Social Support and Parent-Child Relationship Among Adolescents and Their Influence on Emotions. Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(1), 89–94. (in Chinese)

  • Zhou, J., Li, X., Tian, L., & Huebner, E. S. (2020). Longitudinal Association Between Low Self-Esteem and Depression in Early Adolescents: The Role of Rejection Sensitivity and Loneliness. Psychology and psychotherapy, 93(1), 54–71.

  • Zhou, T., Liao, L., Nguyen, T. T., Li, D., & Liu, J. (2023b). Solitude Profiles and Psychological Adjustment in Chinese Late Adolescence: A Person-Centered Research. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 1173441.

  • Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Clear, S. J., & Campbell, S. M. (2021). Peer Relationships and Stress: Indirect Associations of Dispositional Mindfulness With Depression, Anxiety and Loneliness via Ways of Coping. Journal of Adolescence, 93, 177–189.

  • Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Trevaskis, S., Nesdale, D., & Downey, G. A. (2014). Relational Victimization, Loneliness and Depressive Symptoms: Indirect Associations via Self and Peer Reports of Rejection Sensitivity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(4), 568–582.

  • Zou, Z. L., Meng, H. Q., Hu, H., Wang, H., Li M. G., Liang, H. P., Zhong, C. Y., & Ma, Z. R. (2012). Relationship of Loneliness to Social Support and Childhood Abuse in Young Offenders. Chinese Journal of Public Health, 28(2), 238–239. (in Chinese)

Download references


We would like to thank all the researchers who contributed to this research sincerely. Their support and insights have been invaluable in shaping the outcomes of this study. We are also grateful to the funding agencies for their financial assistance.


This research is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFC2501500) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant number SWU2209240).

Data Sharing Declaration

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



J.A.W. conceived the study, participated in its design, wrote the protocol, curated the data, appraised the study quality of included articles, and analyzed formal data; H.F.W. participated in the coordination and helped to curate the data; B.C. participated in the coordination and helped to draft the manuscript; X.L. conceived the study, participated in its conceptualization; C.Q.L. conceived the study, participated in its design and coordination, and helped to the draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Changquan Long.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors report no conflict of interest. The authors have adhered to academic integrity and ethical principles in writing this manuscript. Throughout the literature search and selection process, we have strived to ensure an objective and impartial evaluation of the selected literature while minimizing potential biases. This article does not necessarily reflect the stance of any institution or organization. We commit to being accountable for the content of this article and welcome any constructive criticism and feedback on our research. During the preparation of this work, we used DeepL ( to check and correct potential grammar mistakes and enhance readability, because English is not our native language. After using this tool, we reviewed and edited the content as needed and take full responsibility for the content of the publication.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.



Keywords and Full Search String in the Current Meta-Analysis

Full Search String in the Current Meta-analysis

Chinese Version (e.g., CNKI)

TKA=(‘抑郁’+’焦虑’+’恐惧’+’压力’+’双相’+’躁狂’+’自杀’+’情绪失调’+’非自杀性自伤’+’消极情绪’+’人格障碍’+’边缘性人格障碍’+’网络成瘾’+’饮食障碍’ +’躯体变形障碍’+’厌食’+’暴食’+’多动’+’精神分裂’+’物质滥用’+’成瘾’+’睡眠障碍’+’发育障碍’+’认知障碍’+’虐待’+’述情障碍’+‘错失恐惧’+’外化问题’+‘心理健康’+‘情绪调节’+‘霸凌’+‘错失恐惧’+’外化问题’+‘心理健康’+‘情绪调节’+‘霸凌’) and TKA=('青少年'+'成年早期') and TKA=('孤独感' + '社会排斥' + '独处')

English Version (e.g., PubMed)

(Depress*[Title/Abstract] OR Anxiety[Title/Abstract] OR Phobia[Title/Abstract] OR distress*[Title/Abstract] OR Bipolar[Title/Abstract] OR Mania[Title/Abstract] OR Suicide[Title/Abstract] OR “Emotion Dysregulation”[Title/Abstract] OR “Non-suicidal self-injury”[Title/Abstract] OR “Negative feeling”[Title/Abstract] OR “Negative affect”[Title/Abstract] OR “Personality disorder”[Title/Abstract] OR “Borderline personality”[Title/Abstract] OR “Internalizing problems”[Title/Abstract] OR “Binge eating”[Title/Abstract] OR Bulima[Title/Abstract] OR “eating disorder”[Title/Abstract] OR “body dysmorphic disorder”[Title/Abstract] OR anorexia[Title/Abstract] OR ADHD[Title/Abstract] OR Hyperactiv*[Title/Abstract] OR Schizophrenia[Title/Abstract] OR “Psychotic disorder”[Title/Abstract] OR Inattentive[Title/Abstract] OR “Substance use”[Title/Abstract] OR “Alcohol use”[Title/Abstract] OR “Alcohol dependence”[Title/Abstract] OR “Drug use”[Title/Abstract] OR “Drug dependence”[Title/Abstract] OR “internet Addiction”[Title/Abstract] OR “Sleep disorder”[Title/Abstract] OR “Pervasive developmental disorder”[Title/Abstract] OR “Cognitive Dysfunction”[Title/Abstract] OR “Psychological maltreatment”[Title/Abstract] OR Alexithymia[Title/Abstract] OR “Fear of Missing out”[Title/Abstract] OR FOMO[Title/Abstract] OR “mental health”[Title/Abstract] OR “Externalizing problems”[Title/Abstract] OR “emotion regulation”[Title/Abstract] OR bully [Title/Abstract]) AND (lone*[Title/Abstract] OR “social* isolate*”[Title/Abstract] OR “social* separate*”[Title/Abstract] OR “social* ostracis*”[Title/Abstract] OR “social* reject*”[Title/Abstract] OR solitude[Title/Abstract] OR alone*[Title/Abstract]) AND (adolescen*[Title/Abstract] OR Teens[Title/Abstract] OR teenagers*[Title/Abstract] OR youth*[Title/Abstract] OR “young adult*”[Title/Abstract])


Table 4

Table 4 Detailed characteristics of included studies


Fig. 3

Fig. 3
figure 3figure 3figure 3

Results of sensitive analyses. Outlier and influence analyses for the outliers results of the correlation between loneliness and mental health outcomes. Analysis for the correlation between loneliness and (A) sleep problem. B Negative problem. C Substance use. D Phobia. E General mental health. F Fear of missing out. G Depression. H General anxiety. I Social anxiety. J Internet overuse. K psychological maltreatment. L Internalizing problem. M Suicide. N Stress. O Internet externalizing problem. P Emotion regulation. Q Non-suicide self-injury


Table 5

Table 5 Quality assessment

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, JA., Wang, HF., Cao, B. et al. Cultural Dimensions Moderate the Association between Loneliness and Mental Health during Adolescence and Younger Adulthood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Youth Adolescence (2024).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: