While research that investigates the importance of school-level promotive factors (e.g., teacher support) for sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) well-being has proliferated, less research has focused on state-level climate and policy implications for gender minority youth-specific experiences. This study investigated the impact of two youth-specific SGM state-level laws (i.e., “anti-LGBT laws” and conversion therapy bans) on social transition experiences (i.e., name/pronoun use and using desired bathroom/locker rooms) of GMY (n = 4000) aged 13–17. Through a series of multivariable regression models, it was determined that the absence of laws that restricted rights for sexual and gender minority people was associated with greater use of the correct name and correct pronouns for transgender youth. These differences were further explained by binary gender identity (transgender binary or nonbinary) status, region, and age in multivariable models. Findings highlight the importance of enacting more uniform protections for SGMY, especially to protect transgender youth that live in the southern region of the U.S.
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This research uses data from the LGBTQ National Teen Study, designed by R.W. and Rebecca Puhl In collaboration with the Human Rights Campaign, and supported by the Office for Vice President of Research at the University of Connecticut. The authors acknowledge the important contributions of Ellen Kahn, Gabe Murchison, and Liam Miranda. In their support, conceptualization, and management related to the LGBTQ National Teen Study.
This work was supported through funding by the National Institutes of Drug Abuse (Grant K01DA047918). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.Data Sharing Declaration
This manuscript’s data will not be deposited.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no competing interests.
All study procedures were approved by the University of Connecticut IRB board, protocol H16-322. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed assent was obtained from all youth participants included in the study. A waiver of parental consent was obtained from the IRB related to this study.
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Renley, B.M., Burson, E., Simon, K.A. et al. Youth-specific sexual and gender minority state-level policies: Implications for pronoun, name, and bathroom/locker room use among gender minority youth. J Youth Adolescence 51, 780–791 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-022-01582-9
- State laws
- Sexual and gender diverse youth
- Chosen name