Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social Forces, 64(1), 151–167.
Allison, P. D. (2001). Missing Data (Vol. 136). Sage Publications, Inc.
Amaya, A., & Presser, S. (2017). Nonresponse bias for univariate and multivariate estimates of social activities and roles. Public Opinion Quarterly, 81(1), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfw037.
Arum, R. (2000). Schools and communities: ecological and institutional dimensions. Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1), 395–418. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.395.
Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2015). Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1–48. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01.
Berends, M. (2015). Sociology and school choice: what we know after two decades of charter schools. Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1), 159–180. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-073014-112340.
Berg, M. T., Stewart, E. A., Brunson, R. K., & Simons, R. L. (2012). Neighborhood cultural heterogeneity and adolescent violence. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28(3), 411–435. JSTOR.
Billings, S. B., Deming, D. J., & Rockoff, J. (2014). School Segregation, Educational Attainment, and Crime: Evidence from the End of Busing in Charlotte-Mecklenburg. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 129(1), 435–476. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjt026.
Billings, S. B., Deming, D. J., & Ross, S. L. (2019). Partners in crime. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 11(1), 126–150. https://doi.org/10.1257/app.20170249.
Boettner, B., Browning, C. R., & Calder, C. A. (2019). Feasibility and validity of geographically explicit ecological momentary assessment with recall-aided space-time budgets. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 29(3), 627–645. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12474.
Briggs, X., de, S., Ferryman, K. S., Popkin, S. J., & Rendón, M. (2008). Why did the moving to opportunity experiment not get young people into better schools? Housing Policy Debate, 19(1), 53–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2008.9521627.
Briggs, X. de S., Popkin, S. J., & Goering, J. (2010). Moving to Opportunity: The Story of an American Experiment to Fight Ghetto Poverty: The Story of an American Experiment to Fight Ghetto Poverty. Oxford University Press.
Britt, C. L., Rocque, M., & Zimmerman, G. M. (2018). The analysis of bounded count data in criminology. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 34(2), 591–607. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-017-9346-9.
Browning, C. R., Calder, C. A., Boettner, B., Tarrence, J., Khan, K., Soller, B., & Ford, J. L. (2021). Neighborhoods, activity spaces, and the span of adolescent exposures. American Sociological Review, 86(2), 201–233. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122421994219.
Browning, C. R., Pinchak, N. P., & Calder, C. A. (2021). Human mobility and crime: theoretical approaches and novel data collection strategies. Annual Review of Criminology, 4(1), 99–123. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-criminol-061020-021551.
Browning, C. R., & Soller, B. (2014). Moving beyond neighborhood: activity spaces and ecological networks as contexts for youth development. Cityscape (Washington, D.C.), 16(1), 165–196.
Burrington, L. A. (2018). Neighborhood Advantage, Relative Status, and Violence Among Foreign-Born Adolescents. Justice Quarterly, 35(4), 699–725. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2017.1339112.
Carle, A. C. (2009). Fitting multilevel models in complex survey data with design weights: recommendations. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 9(1), 49 https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-9-49.
Chang, L.-Y., Wang, M.-Y., & Tsai, P.-S. (2016). Neighborhood disadvantage and physical aggression in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of multilevel studies. Aggressive Behavior, 42(5), 441–454. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21641.
Chen, P., & Chantala, K. (2014). Guidelines for Analyzing Add Health Data. Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina. https://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/documentation/guides
Chetty, R., Hendren, N., & Katz, L. F. (2016). The Effects of Exposure to Better Neighborhoods on Children: New Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment. American Economic Review, 106(4), 855–902. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.20150572.
Clampet-Lundquist, S., Edin, K., Kling, J. R., & Duncan, G. J. (2011). Moving Teenagers Out of High-Risk Neighborhoods: How Girls Fare Better than Boys. American Journal of Sociology, 116(4), 1154–1189. https://doi.org/10.1086/657352.
Cook, T. D., Herman, M. R., & Phillips, M. (2002). Some Ways in Which Neighborhoods, Nuclear Families, Friendship Groups, and Schools Jointly Affect Changes in Early Adolescent Development. Child Development, 73(4), 1283–1309. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00472. Jr, R. A. S.
Crosnoe, R. (2009). Low-income students and the socioeconomic composition of public high schools. American Sociological Review, 74(5), 709–730. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240907400502.
DeLuca, S., Clampet-Lundquist, S., & Edin, K. (2016). Coming of Age in the Other America. Russell Sage Foundation.
Deming, D. J. (2011). Better schools, less crime? The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(4), 2063–2115. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjr036.
DiPrete, T. A., & Eirich, G. M. (2006). Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: a review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology, 32(1), 271–297. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123127.
Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 189–214. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100412.
Dolcini, M. M., Harper, G. W., Watson, S. E., Catania, J. A., & Ellen, J. M. (2005). Friends in the ‘hood: should peer-based health promotion programs target nonschool friendship networks? Journal of Adolescent Health, 36(3), 267.e6–267.e15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.10.003.
Domina, T., Pharris-Ciurej, N., Penner, A. M., Penner, E. K., Brummet, Q., Porter, S. R., & Sanabria, T. (2018). Is Free and Reduced-Price Lunch a Valid Measure of Educational Disadvantage?: Educational Researcher. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X18797609
Duxbury, S. W., & Haynie, D. L. (2020). School suspension and social selection: Labeling, network change, and adolescent, academic achievement. Social Science Research, 85, 102365 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2019.102365.
Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S. (1994). The Gender Gap in Math: Its Possible Origins in Neighborhood Effects. American Sociological Review, 59(6), 822–838. https://doi.org/10.2307/2096370.
Gaias, L. M., Lindstrom Johnson, S., White, R. M. B., Pettigrew, J., & Dumka, L. (2018). Understanding school–neighborhood mesosystemic effects on adolescent development. Adolescent Research Review, 3(3), 301–319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-017-0077-9.
Goldsmith, P. R. (2009). Schools or neighborhoods or both? race and ethnic segregation and educational attainment. Social Forces, 87(4), 1913–1941. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.0.0193.
Graif, C. (2015). Delinquency and gender moderation in the moving to opportunity intervention: the role of extended neighborhoods. Criminology, 53(3), 366–398. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9125.12078.
Hannon, L. (2003). Poverty, delinquency, and educational attainment: cumulative disadvantage or disadvantage saturation? Sociological Inquiry, 73(4), 575–594. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-682X.00072.
Harding, D. J. (2010). Living the Drama: Community, Conflict and Culture among Inner-City Boys. University of Chicago Press.
Harding, D. J., & Hepburn, P. (2014). Cultural Mechanisms in neighborhood effects research in the United States. Sociologia Urbana e Rurale, 103, 37–73. https://doi.org/10.3280/SUR2014-103004.
Harris, K. M., Halpern, C. T., Rosamond, W., Hussey, J., Tabor, J. W., Entzel, P. P., & Udry, J. R. (2009). The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health: Research Design [WWW document]. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/design.
Harvey, H., Fong, K., Edin, K., & DeLuca, S. (2020). Forever homes and temporary stops: housing search logics and residential selection. Social Forces, 98(4), 1498–1523. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/soz110.
Haynie, D., Silver, E., & Teasdale, B. (2006). Neighborhood characteristics, peer networks, and adolescent violence. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22(2), 147–169. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-006-9006-y.
Heisig, J. P., & Schaeffer, M. (2019). Why you should always include a random slope for the lower-level variable involved in a cross-level interaction. European Sociological Review, 35(2), 258–279. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcy053.
Hirschfield, P. J. (2018). Schools and crime. Annual Review of Criminology, 1(1), 149–169. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-criminol-032317-092358.
Hofferth, S. L. (2009). Changes in American children’s time—1997 to 2003. Electronic International Journal of Time Use Research. https://doi.org/10.13085/EIJTUR.6.1.26-47
Jencks, C., & Mayer, S. E. (1990). The Social Consequences of Growing Up in a Poor Neighborhood. In L. E. Lynn Jr & M. G. H. McGeary (Eds.), Inner-City Poverty in the United States (pp. 111–185). National Academies Press.
Katz, L. F., Kling, J. R., & Liebman, J. B. (2001). Moving to opportunity in Boston: early results of a randomized mobility experiment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(2), 607–654. https://doi.org/10.1162/00335530151144113.
Kim, Y. S. (2016). Examination of the Relative Effects of Neighborhoods and Schools on Juvenile Delinquency: A Multilevel Cross-Classified Model Approach. Deviant Behavior, 37(10), 1196–1214. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2016.1170537.
Kirk, D. S. (2009). Unraveling the Contextual Effects on Student Suspension and Juvenile Arrest: The Independent and Interdependent Influences of School, Neighborhood, and Family Social Controls. Criminology, 47(2), 479–520. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2009.00147.x.
Kling, J. R., Liebman, J. B., & Katz, L. F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83–119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0262.2007.00733.x.
Kling, J. R., Ludwig, J., & Katz, L. F. (2005). Neighborhood Effects on Crime for Female and Male Youth: Evidence from a Randomized Housing Voucher Experiment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(1), 87–130. https://doi.org/10.1162/0033553053327470.
Komro, K. A., Flay, B. R., & Biglan, A. (2011). Creating Nurturing Environments: A Science-Based Framework for Promoting Child Health and Development within High-Poverty Neighborhoods. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14(2), 111–134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-011-0095-2.
Konold, T., Cornell, D., Shukla, K., & Huang, F. (2017). Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceptions of School Climate and Its Association with Student Engagement and Peer Aggression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(6), 1289–1303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0576-1.
Krysan, M., & Crowder, K. (2017). Cycle of Segregation: Social Processes and Residential Stratification. Russell Sage Foundation.
Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal Childhoods: Class, Race, and Family Life, With an Update a Decade Later. University of California Press.
Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Harvard University Press.
Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2011). Changes in neighborhood poverty from 1990 to 2000 and youth’s problem behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 47(6), 1680–1698. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025314.
Leventhal, T., & Dupéré, V. (2019). Neighborhood Effects on Children’s Development in Experimental and Nonexperimental Research. Annual Review of Developmental Psychology, 1(1), 149–176. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221.
Levy, B. L. (2019). Heterogeneous Impacts of Concentrated Poverty During Adolescence on College Outcomes. Social Forces, 98(1), 147–182. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/soy116.
Levy, B. L., Owens, A., & Sampson, R. J. (2019). The Varying Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage on College Graduation: Moderating and Mediating Mechanisms. Sociology of Education, 92(3), 269–292. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040719850146.
Lindegaard, M. R., Miller, J., & Reynald, D. M. (2013). Transitory Mobility, Cultural Heterogeneity, and Victimization Risk Among Young Men of Color: Insights from an Ethnographic Study in Cape Town, South Africa. Criminology, 51(4), 967–1008. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9125.12025.
Lindegaard, M. R., & Zimmermann, F. (2017). Flexible cultural repertoires: Young men avoiding offending and victimization in township areas of Cape Town. Ethnography, 18(2), 193–220. https://doi.org/10.1177/1466138116673379.
Long, J. S., & Freese, J. (2014). Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables Using Stata (3rd ed.). Stata Press.
Maimon, D., & Browning, C. R. (2010). Unstructured socializing, collective efficacy, and violent behavior among urban youth. Criminology, 48(2), 443–474. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2010.00192.x.
Masho, S. W., Zirkle, K. W., Wheeler, D. C., Sullivan, T., & Farrell, A. D. (2019). Spatial Analysis of the Impact of a School-Level Youth Violence Prevention Program on Violent Crime Incidents in the Community. Prevention Science, 20(4), 521–531. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-0990-1.
Matthews, S. A. (2011). Spatial polygamy and the heterogeneity of place: Studying people and place via egocentric methods. In L. M. Burton, S. A. Matthews, M. Leung, S. P. Kemp & D. T. Takeuchi (Eds.), Communities, neighborhoods, and health (pp. 35–55). New York, NY: Springer. 10.1007/978-1-4419-7482-2_3.
McDonald, N. C. (2008). Children’s mode choice for the school trip: The role of distance and school location in walking to school. Transportation, 35(1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-007-9135-7.
McFarland, J., Hussar, B., Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Wang, X., Wang, K., Hein, S., Diliberti, M., Forrest Cataldi, E., Bullock Mann, F., & Barmer, A. (2019). Concentration of Public School Students Eligible for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch. In The Condition of Education 2019. National Center for Education Statistics. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/pdf/Indicator_CLB/coe_clb_2013_01.pdf
McGloin, J. M., & Thomas, K. J. (2019). Peer influence and delinquency. Annual Review of Criminology, 2(1), 241–264. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-criminol-011518-024551.
Mize, T. D. (2019). Best practices for estimating, interpreting, and presenting nonlinear interaction effects. Sociological Science, 6, 81–117. https://doi.org/10.15195/v6.a4.
Mustillo, S. A., Lizardo, O. A., & McVeigh, R. M. (2018). Editors’ comment: a few guidelines for quantitative submissions. American Sociological Review, 83(6), 1281–1283. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122418806282.
Nieuwenhuis, J., van Ham, M., Yu, R., Branje, S., Meeus, W., & Hooimeijer, P. (2017). Being poorer than the rest of the neighborhood: relative deprivation and problem behavior of youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(9), 1891–1904. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0668-6.
O’Donnell, D. A., Roberts, W. C., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2011). Community violence exposure and post-traumatic stress reactions among Gambian youth: the moderating role of positive school climate. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(1), 59–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-009-0162-x.
Owens, A. (2010). Neighborhoods and schools as competing and reinforcing contexts for educational attainment. Sociology of Education, 83(4), 287–311. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040710383519.
Ozer, M., & Perc, M. (2020). Dreams and realities of school tracking and vocational education. Palgrave Communications, 6(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-0409-4.
Pepinsky, T. B. (2018). A note on listwise deletion versus multiple imputation. Political Analysis, 26(4), 480–488. https://doi.org/10.1017/pan.2018.18.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Sage Publications.
Raudenbush, S. W., Johnson, C., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). A multivariate, multilevel rasch model with application to self–reported criminal behavior. Sociological Methodology, 33(1), 169–211. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0081-1750.2003.t01-1-00130.x.
Rindfuss, R. R., Choe, M. K., Tsuya, N. O., Bumpass, L. L., & Tamaki, E. (2015). Do low survey response rates bias results? Evidence from Japan. Demographic Research, 32, 797–828. JSTOR.
Rosenbaum, J. E. (1995). Changing the geography of opportunity by expanding residential choice: Lessons from the Gautreaux program. Housing Policy Debate, 6(1), 231–269. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.1995.9521186.
Sampson, R. J. (2012). Great American city: Chicago and the enduring neighborhood effect. University of Chicago Press.
Sampson, R. J. (2019). Neighbourhood effects and beyond: Explaining the paradoxes of inequality in the changing American metropolis. Urban Studies, 56(1), 3–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098018795363.
Sampson, R. J., & Sharkey, P. (2008). Neighborhood selection and the social reproduction of concentrated racial inequality. Demography, 45(1), 1–29.
Schmidt, N. M., Glymour, M. M., & Osypuk, T. L. (2017). Adolescence is a sensitive period for housing mobility to influence risky behaviors: an experimental design. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(4), 431–437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.10.022.
Schmidt, N. M., Krohn, M. D., & Osypuk, T. L. (2018). Modification of housing mobility experimental effects on delinquency and educational problems: middle adolescence as a sensitive period. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(10), 2009–2026. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0859-9.
Seaton, E. K., & Yip, T. (2009). School and neighborhood contexts, perceptions of racial discrimination, and psychological well-being among African American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(2), 153–163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9356-x.
Sharkey, P. T. (2006). Navigating dangerous streets: the sources and consequences of street efficacy. American Sociological Review, 71(5), 826–846. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240607100506.
Sharkey, P. T., & Faber, J. W. (2014). Where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter? Moving away from the dichotomous understanding of neighborhood effects. Annual Review of Sociology, 40(1), 559–579. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043350.
Sharp, G., Denney, J. T., & Kimbro, R. T. (2015). Multiple contexts of exposure: Activity spaces, residential neighborhoods, and self-rated health. Social Science & Medicine, 146, 204–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.10.040.
Shedd, C. (2015). Unequal city: Race, schools, and perceptions of injustice. (Russell Sage Foundation.
Shuey, E. A., & Leventhal, T. (2019). Neighborhoods and parenting. In Handbook of parenting: Biology and ecology of parenting (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 371–399). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429401459-11
Spilsbury, J. C. (2005). ‘we don’t really get to go out in the front yard’—Children’s home range and neighborhood violence. Children’s Geographies, 3(1), 79–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/14733280500037281.
Tompsett, C. J., Amrhein, K. E., & Hassan, S. (2014). Travel beyond the home neighborhood for delinquent behaviors: moderation of home neighborhood influences. Journal of Adolescence, 37(4), 325–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.02.001.
Whipple, S. S., Evans, G. W., Barry, R. L., & Maxwell, L. E. (2010). An ecological perspective on cumulative school and neighborhood risk factors related to achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31(6), 422–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2010.07.002.
Zuberi, A. (2012). Neighborhood poverty and children’s exposure to danger: examining gender differences in impacts of the Moving to Opportunity experiment. Social Science Research, 41(4), 788–801. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2012.01.005.