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Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations among Parenting Quality, Parenting Stress, and Child Functioning in HIV-affected Families

Abstract

Mothers living with HIV (MLH) face unique stressors impacting parenting, parenting stress, and child psychosocial functioning, but longitudinal, bidirectional relations among family processes have not been examined in this population. This study examined relations among parenting quality, parenting stress, and child functioning in 174 MLH-child dyads (aged 6–14, Mage = 9.65, SD = 2.49; 51% female; 57% Black/African American; 35% Latinx). Families completed self-report questionnaires over four waves spanning 15 months. Cross-lagged panel analysis revealed unidirectional and bidirectional relations between parenting stress and child functioning; parenting quality and child functioning; and parenting quality and parenting stress. The findings suggest that prevention and intervention efforts with HIV-affected families should target both parent factors (e.g., communication skills) and child factors (e.g., emotion regulation), emphasizing parenting stress reduction in order to bolster family outcomes.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Dr Wing Yi Chan and Dr Laura McKee for their input on this project.

Funding

This research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health Grant Numbers R01MH094233 (PI: L.P.A.), R01MH094148 (PI: M.S.), and F31MH109370 (PI: N.M.G.). N.M.G. is supported by training grant T32MH18869 (PIs: Danielson and Kilpatrick). D.A.M. acknowledges additional support from the National Institute of Mental Health (P30MH58107).

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This manuscript’s data will not be deposited.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

N.M.G. conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, performed the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript; L.P.A. conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, participated in the interpretation of the data, and helped to draft the manuscript; K.M. supervised the statistical analysis and participated in the interpretation of the data; M.S. participated in the study design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript; D.A.M. participated in the study design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nada M. Goodrum.

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Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of Georgia State University and the University of California, Los Angeles. The study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards as described in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all parent participants of this study, and assent was obtained from all child participants.

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Goodrum, N.M., Armistead, L.P., Masyn, K. et al. Longitudinal Bidirectional Relations among Parenting Quality, Parenting Stress, and Child Functioning in HIV-affected Families. J Youth Adolescence 50, 1663–1678 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01444-w

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01444-w

Keywords

  • Parenting
  • Parenting stress
  • HIV
  • Child mental health
  • Bidirectional
  • Longitudinal