Ethnic-racial identity, ethnic-racial socialization, and racialized experiences are fundamental to the development of youth of color. However, most prior studies have examined their developmental impact in isolation. The present study fills this gap using a person-centered approach to elucidate patterns of ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and model minority experiences among 145 Asian American adolescents (Mage = 14.3, SD = 0.59; 65% female). Three distinct profiles were identified. Overall, adolescents with stronger ethnic-racial identity and more cultural socialization but less preparation for bias (Salient, 13%) demonstrated better psychosocial and academic outcomes. Adolescents with moderate levels on the six indicators of ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and model minority experiences (Moderate, 72%) reported better sleep quality and less delinquency. Adolescents with low levels of ethnic-racial identity and cultural socialization but greater preparation for bias (Marginal, 15%) had the least adaptative outcomes across all domains. The findings observed the heterogeneity of ethnic-racial experiences within the Asian American group and highlighted the importance of examining the combined influences of ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and model minority experiences on health and well-being among Asian American adolescents from a multidimensional perspective.
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M.X. reviewed the literature, performed the statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript; J.F. helped to draft the review of literature and part of discussion; P.S.I. conducted literature searches and helped to present the results; M.H. helped to draft the method section; T.Y. designed and supervised the original data collection and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work was supported by Developmental Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation under award BCS-1354134 and the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities of the National Institutes of Health under award R21MD011388 awarded to the last author. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Science Foundation or the National Institutes of Health.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no competing interest.
The study procedures were approved by Fordham University Institutional Review Board. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants (parents) included in the study. Informal assent was obtained from adolescents.
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Xie, M., Fowle, J., Ip, P.S. et al. Profiles of Ethnic-Racial Identity, Socialization, and Model Minority Experiences: Associations with Well-Being Among Asian American Adolescents. J Youth Adolescence (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01436-w
- Ethnic-racial identity
- The model minority myth
- Asian American adolescents