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Table 2 Descriptive statistics and change in study variables 2015–2018

From: Physical Fighting and Leisure Activities among Norwegian Adolescents—Investigating Co-occurring Changes from 2015 to 2018

  Boys Girls Total
  M (SD)/%    M (SD)/%    M (SD)/%   
  2015
(n = 10,896)
2018
(n = 12,376)
Cohen’s d p 2015
(n = 11,604)
2018
(n = 12,779)
Cohen’s d p 2015
(n = 23,381)
2018
(n = 25,287)
Cohen’s d p
Leisure time activities
 Parental monitoring (1–4) 3.11 (0.66) 3.13 (0.69) 0.03 0.138 3.23 (0.60) 3.27 (0.61) 0.07 0.364 3.18 (0.63) 3.20 (0.66) 0.04 0.442
 Evenings at home (0–3) 1.79 (0.88) 1.84 (0.92) 0.06 <0.001 1.88 (0.80) 1.91 (0.83) 0.04 0.006 1.84 (0.84) 1.88 (0.80) 0.05 <0.001
 Organized leisure activities (0–3) 0.55 (0.50) 0.59 (0.57) 0.07 <0.001 0.49 (0.49) 0.52 (0.53) 0.06 0.009 0.53 (0.53) 0.57 (0.60) 0.07 <0.001
 Evenings out with friends (0–3) 1.01 (0.93) 1.07 (0.96) 0.06 <0.001 0.96 (0.90) 1.01 (0.90) 0.08 <0.001 0.99 (0.92) 1.04 (0.93) 0.05 <0.001
 School truancy (0–4) 0.72 (1.17) 0.80 (1.21) 0.07 <0.001 0.74 (1.15) 0.73 (1.21) 0.01 <0.001 0.73 (1.16) 0.76 (1.17) 0.03 <0.001
 Screen time (0–6) 3.52 (1.46) 3.86 (1.39) 0.24 <0.001 3.34 (1.42) 3.67 (1.34) 0.24 <0.001 3.42 (1.45) 3.76 (1.37) 0.24 <0.001
 Social media use (0–5) 2.41 (1.49) 2.69 (1.49) 0.19 <0.001 3.10 (1.50) 3.45 (1.40) 0.24 <0.001 2.78 (1.53) 3.09 (1.49) 0.20 <0.001
 Alcohol intoxication (0–4) 0.81 (1.37) 0.81 (1.37) 0.00 0.068 0.84 (1.35) 0.78 (1.31) 0.05 0.012 0.82 (1.36) 0.79 (1.34) 0.02 0.527
 Cannabis use (0–4) 0.31 (0.91) 0.51 (1.17) 0.19 <0.001 0.17 (0.63) 0.23 (0.75) 0.09 <0.001 0.23 (0.78) 0.37 (0.98) 0.16 <0.001
Control variables
 Years of schooling (8–13) 10.33 (1.64) 10.23 (1.66) 0.06 <0.001 10.36 (1.68) 10.27 (1.67) 0.05 <0.001 10.33 (1.66) 10.36 (1.66) 0.05 <0.001
 Socioeconomic background (0–3) 1.87 (0.76) 2.06 (0.66) 0.26 <0.001 1.93 (0.73) 2.07 (0.66) 0.21 <0.001 1.90 (0.74) 2.06 (0.66) 0.24 <0.001
 Migration background (% yes) 32.7 33.6   0.162 34.3 34.1   0.713 33.9 33.9   0.974
 School grades (1–6) 3.97 (0.89) 4.01 (0.90) 0.05 <0.001 4.09 (0.83) 4.19 (0.83) 0.11 <0.001 4.03 (0.86) 4.11 (0.87) 0.09 <0.001
  1. Note. Difference tests for the leisure time activities were conducted by linear regression analyses with years of schooling, socioeconomic background, migration background, and school grades as control variables