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Table 2 Overall effect sizes of all risk domains for school absenteeism

From: Risk Factors for School Absenteeism and Dropout: A Meta-Analytic Review

Domain of risk factors # Studies # ES Mean z (SE) 95% CI Sig. mean z (p) % Var. at level 1 Level 2 variance % Var. at level 2 Level 3 variance % Var. at level 3 Mean r
Child domains (#24)
Having a negative school attitude 11 72 0.553 (0.222) (0.110, 0.996) <0.001*** 0.0 0.003*** 0.6 0.536*** 99.4 0.503a
Anti-social behavior/cognitions 19 53 0.457 (0.180) (0.096, 0.818) 0.014* 0.0 0.018*** 3.0 0.604*** 97.0 0.428a
Low academic self-concept 3 5 0.418 (0.189) (−0.105, 0.942) 0.091+ 1.9 0.033*** 28.6 0.079 69.6 0.395
Smoking 2 9 0.350 (0.048) (0.239, 0.461) <0.001*** 1.4 0.021*** 98.6 0.000 0.0 0.336a
Drug abuse 7 24 0.340 (0.069) (0.196, 0.483) <0.001*** 0.5 0.011*** 27.7 0.028* 71.8 0.327a
Alcohol abuse 7 35 0.322 (0.026) (0.270, 0.375) <0.001*** 1.1 0.023*** 98.9 0.000 0.0 0.311a
Other internalizing problems 11 33 0.317 (0.122) (0.068, 0.565) 0.014* 0.9 0.008*** 5.0 0.156*** 94.0 0.307a
Psychiatric symptoms/disorders 5 7 0.313 (0.047) (0.198, 0.428) <0.001*** 20.4 0.003 29.2 0.005 50.5 0.303a
Being a sexual minority 2 7 0.280 (0.079) (0.086, 0.474) 0.012* 0.3 0.005*** 36.9 0.008 62.8 0.273a
Delinquent behavior 7 20 0.258 (0.139) (−0.032, 0.549) 0.079+ 0.1 0.019*** 13.4 0.123** 86.5 0.252
Depression 8 13 0.242 (0.032) (0.173, 0.311) <0.001*** 5.8 0.008*** 94.2 0.000 0.0 0.237b
Low academic achievement 11 22 0.236 (0.049) (0.135, 0.337) <0.001*** 1.0 0.024*** 72.4 0.009 26.5 0.232b
High sexual involvement 2 8 0.233 (0.064) (0.081, 0.384) 0.008** 1.2 0.032*** 98.8 0.000 0.0 0.229b
Showing risky behavior 2 8 0.230 (0.067) (0.073, 0.388) 0.011* 0.9 0.003*** 28.1 0.008* 71.0 0.226b
Poor physical health 10 57 0.180 (0.042) (0.097, 0.264) <0.001*** 0.8 0.010*** 42.5 0.013*** 56.7 0.178b
Risky coping/personality profile 7 34 0.159 (0.020) (0.117, 0.200) <0.001*** 28.9 0.010*** 71.1 0.000 0.0 0.158c
Not being religious 2 3 0.142 (0.040) (−0.031, 0.316) 0.072+ 7.4 0.004*** 92.6 0.000 0.0 0.141
Age (being older) 12 17 0.127 (0.029) (0.065, 0.189) <0.001*** 4.5 0.003*** 26.8 0.006 68.7 0.126c
Anxiety 9 25 0.116 (0.047) (0.018, 0.214) 0.022* 3.5 0.007*** 33.8 0.013*** 62.7 0.115c
High impact/negative life events 4 8 0.112 (0.062) (−0.033, 0.258) 0.111 0.9 0.026*** 99.1 0.000 0.0 0.112
 History of grade retention 1 1 0.100 (0.017) (0.068, 0.132) <0.001*** 100.0 0.100c
Low IQ/learning difficulties 5 6 0.099 (0.033) (0.014, 0.184) <0.001*** 5.0 0.005 95.0 0.000 0.0 0.099c
Negative or no leisure activities 4 10 0.081 (0.084) (−0.110, 0.271) 0.364 7.0 0.005* 16.2 0.024* 76.8 0.081
Having a job 2 6 0.071 (0.096) (−0.177, 0.319) 0.494 0.5 0.005*** 21.2 0.017* 78.3 0.071
Ethnicity (being non-white) 15 36 0.024 (0.030) (−0.037, 0.086) 0.431 0.6 0.006*** 43.4 0.008+ 56.0 0.024
Family domains (#11)
Low parental school involvement 4 12 0.279 (0.108) (0.042, 0.516) 0.025* 0.3 0.001*** 1.2 0.045*** 98.5 0.272a
History of child abuse victimization 4 19 0.263 (0.023) (0.214, 0.312) <0.001*** 8.6 0.009*** 91.4 0.000 0.0 0.257a
 Low attachment to parent 1 1 0.224 (0.024) (0.175, 0.264) <0.001*** 100.0 0.220b
Large family size 2 2 0.197 (0.120) (−1.323, 1.717) 0.348 35.6 0.010 32.2 0.010 32.2 0.194
Family structure (no nuclear family) 11 24 0.189 (0.046) (0.093, 0.285) <0.001*** 0.5 0.050*** 99.5 0.000 0.0 0.187b
Parental mental/physical problems 1 3 0.188 (0.040) (0.017, 0.360) 0.042* 4.0 0.005*** 96.0 0.000 0.0 0.186b
Low parental support/acceptance 4 12 0.184 (0.027) (0.124, 0.245) <0.001*** 10.1 0.005*** 89.9 0.000 0.0 0.182b
Low parental education 6 17 0.156 (0.041) (0.068, 0.243) 0.002** 2.2 0.011*** 74.6 0.004 23.2 0.155c
Ineffective family systems 6 15 0.154 (0.071) (0.001, 0.306) 0.049* 7.1 0.002 6.7 0.024** 86.3 0.153c
Low family SES 20 50 0.135 (0.047) (0.042, 0.229) 0.005** 0.8 0.010*** 23.7 0.033*** 75.4 0.134c
Low parental control 6 16 0.124 (0.028) (0.064, 0.184) <0.001*** 3.1 0.004*** 61.8 0.002 35.1 0.123c
Sibling at school 1 2 0.065 (0.035) (−0.382, 0.512) 0.315 53.8 0.001 46.2 0.000 0.0 0.065
 Parental absenteeism in past 1 1 0.000 (0.200) (−0.373, 0.373) 1.000 100.0 0.000
School domains (#6)
Distance to school (short) 1 3 0.518 (0.228) (−0.464, 1.500) 0.151 71.1 0.045 28.9 0.000 0.0 0.476
Poor pupil-teacher relationship 6 9 0.294 (0.057) (0.163, 0.425) <0.001*** 1.6 0.007*** 33.9 0.013 64.5 0.286a
education/education 6 21 0.233 (0.094) (0.037, 0.429) 0.022* 1.6 0.007*** 13.2 0.047*** 85.2 0.229b
Negative school/class climate 8 26 0.185 (0.028) (0.128, 0.242) <0.001*** 3.6 0.018*** 96.4 0.000 0.0 0.183b
Public school (vs. private) 1 2 0.098 (0.062) (−0.688, 0.885) 0.358 9.9 0.007** 90.1 0.000 0.0 0.098
Large classes/schools 3 6 0.044 (0.110) (−0.240, 0.328) 0.709 10.3 0.000 0.0 0.027* 89.7 0.044
Peer domains (#3)
Having many friends 2 3 0.204 (0.149) (−0.437, 0.846) 0.304 18.0 0.000 0.0 0.038 82.0 0.201
Poor social competence 7 10 0.106 (0.062) (−0.034, 0.247) 0.120 9.1 0.032*** 90.9 0.000 0.0 0.106
 No subculture affiliation 1 1 0.060 (0.027) (0.008, 0.112) 0.013* 100.0 0.060c
Being bullied 5 7 0.011 (0.105) (−0.246, 0.269) 0.919 3.5 0.001 2.9 0.048* 93.6 0.011
  1. # studies number of studies, # ES number of effect sizes, SE standard error, CI confidence interval, Sig significance, Mean z mean effect size (Fisher’s z), % Var percentage of variance explained, Level 2 variance variance between effect sizes from the same study, Level 3 variance variance between studies, Meanr the correlation coefficient corresponding to the mean effect size z
  2. Risk factors that could not be classified into one of the 44 created risk domains for school absenteeism are presented in italics
  3. +p < 0.10; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  4. aSignificant large effect (according to the guidelines of Rice and Harris 2005)
  5. bSignificant medium effect (according to the guidelines of Rice and Harris 2005)
  6. cSignificant small effect (according to the guidelines of Rice and Harris 2005)