Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 48, Issue 6, pp 1161–1174 | Cite as

Autonomy-related Parenting Processes and Adolescent Adjustment in Latinx Immigrant Families

  • Kathleen M. RocheEmail author
  • Sharon F. Lambert
  • Rebecca M. B. White
  • Esther J. Calzada
  • Todd D. Little
  • Gabriel P. Kuperminc
  • John E. Schulenberg
Empirical Research


It is unclear how autonomy-related parenting processes are associated with Latinx adolescent adjustment. This study uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify typologies of parental monitoring and parent–adolescent conflict and examines their association with Latinx youth’s school performance and depressive symptoms. The sample included 248 Latinx 9th and 10th graders (50% female) who completed surveys during fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters of the school year. When compared to a high monitoring/low conflict parenting profile, a moderate monitoring/moderate conflict profile was associated with stronger declines in school performance; for boys, a high monitoring/moderately high conflict profile also was associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms. For Latinx immigrant families, researchers should consider monitoring and conflict as co-occurring processes.


Latinx adolescents Latent profile analysis Parental monitoring Parent–adolescent conflict Depressive symptoms School performance 



We gratefully acknowledge the families for their participation in the project.

Authors' Contributions

K.R. conceived of the study, oversaw its design, conducted analyses, and drafted the manuscript; S.L. participated in interpreting findings from latent profile analyses and drafting the manuscript; R.W. participated in interpreting findings from latent profile analyses and critical revisions of the manuscript for important intellectual content; T.L. participated in the study design, analysis and interpretation of data, and critical revisions of the manuscript for intellectual content; E.C. participated to the interpretation of data and assisted in critical revisions of the manuscript for intellectual content, specifically for the cultural context; G.K. participated in interpretation of data and assisted in critical revisions of the manuscript for intellectual content, specifically for Latinx adolescent autonomy; J.S. participated in data analysis plans, interpreting findings, and revising the manuscript for intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This research was supported by the Springboard Grants Program (Roche) at the Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University.

Data Sharing and Declaration

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

T.L. owns Yhat Enterprises, LLC, which operates his stats camps ( The remaining authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Prevention & Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public HealthThe George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family DynamicsArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  4. 4.Steve Hicks School of Social WorkUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  5. 5.Educational Psychology and LeadershipInstitute for Measurement, Methodology, Analysis, and PolicyLubbockUSA
  6. 6.East China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina
  7. 7.North-West University of South AfricaPotchefstroomSouth Africa
  8. 8.Department of PsychologyGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  9. 9.Institute of Social ResearchUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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