Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 423–443 | Cite as

The Effects of Youth Mentoring Programs: A Meta-analysis of Outcome Studies

  • Elizabeth B. RaposaEmail author
  • Jean Rhodes
  • Geert Jan J. M. Stams
  • Noel Card
  • Samantha Burton
  • Sarah Schwartz
  • Laura A. Yoviene Sykes
  • Stella Kanchewa
  • Janis Kupersmidt
  • Saida Hussain
Systematic Literature Review


Mentoring programs, which pair youth with caring, non-parental adults with the goal of promoting positive youth development, are an increasingly popular strategy for early intervention with at-risk youth. However, important questions remain about the extent to which these interventions improve youth outcomes. The present study involved a comprehensive meta-analysis of all outcome studies of intergenerational, one-on-one youth mentoring programs written in the English language between 1975 and 2017, using rigorous inclusion criteria designed to align with developmental theories of youth mentoring. Analysis of 70 mentoring outcome studies, with a sample size of 25,286 youth (average age of 12 years old), yielded a statistically significant effect of mentoring programs across all youth outcomes. The observed effect size fell within the medium/moderate range according to empirical guidelines derived from universal prevention programs for youth, and was consistent with past meta-analyses of youth mentoring. Moderation analyses indicated that programs serving a larger proportion of male youth, deploying a greater percentage of male mentors or mentors with a helping profession background, and requiring shorter meetings yielded larger effect sizes, as did evaluations that relied on questionnaires and youth self-report. Taken together, these findings provide some support for the efficacy of mentoring interventions, while also emphasizing the need to remain realistic about the modest impact of these programs as currently implemented, and highlighting opportunities for improving the quality and rigor of mentoring practices.


Meta-analysis Youth mentoring Relational theory 



This work was supported by funding from the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Connected Learning and MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership.

Authors’ Contributions

E.B.R. led data management and analysis, wrote the first draft of the manuscript, and coordinated draft revisions; J.R. conceptualized and designed the study, oversaw study execution, and contributed to drafts of the manuscript; G.J.J.M.S. and N.C. consulted on study coding and conducted the statistical analyses; J.K. led the development of the outcome coding scheme; S.S. reviewed and contributed to the final draft of the manuscript; and S.B., L.Y.S., S.K., and S.H. conducted literature searches and then identified and coded relevant studies. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Data Sharing and Declaration

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All research reported on in the manuscript was conducted in compliance with APA ethical principles. The study consisted of secondary analyses of de-identified data, and therefore did not require formal consent or ethics board approval.

Supplementary material

10964_2019_982_MOESM1_ESM.docx (47 kb)
Supplementary Information


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth B. Raposa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jean Rhodes
    • 2
  • Geert Jan J. M. Stams
    • 3
  • Noel Card
    • 4
  • Samantha Burton
    • 2
  • Sarah Schwartz
    • 5
  • Laura A. Yoviene Sykes
    • 2
  • Stella Kanchewa
    • 2
  • Janis Kupersmidt
    • 6
  • Saida Hussain
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesCollege of William and MaryWilliamsburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MassachusettsBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Child Development and EducationUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamNetherlands
  4. 4.Department of Human Development and Family StudiesUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologySuffolk UniversityBostonUSA
  6. 6.Innovation Research & TrainingDurhamUSA
  7. 7.Department of PsychologyUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA

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