Profiles of Coping with Ethnic-Racial Discrimination and Latina/o Adolescents’ Adjustment
The approaches Latina/o youth use for coping with discrimination have important consequences for their adjustment. Yet, little research has examined how adolescents draw on different coping strategies and how patterns of strategies may differentially predict their outcomes. The current investigation examined adolescents’ patterns of coping strategies, changes in these patterns over time, and whether profile membership or transitions in profile membership related to adolescent adjustment. Among a longitudinal sample of Latina/o adolescents (N= 323, 49.5% female, Mage = 15.31 years), three profiles of coping strategies emerged: Passive and Moderately Proud, Confrontative, and Proactive. Latent Transition Analysis showed that these profiles were stable over time, that a majority of youth remained in the same profile of strategies across three years, and that the profiles were differentially related to adolescents’ adjustment. The findings showed that individuals in the Proactive profile reported higher self-esteem and academic motivation than adolescents drawing on different repertoires of coping strategies. These results provide new insights regarding the concurrence of strategies Latina/o youth use to cope with ethnic-racial discrimination and suggest that the adoption of proactive strategies as part of a repertoire of coping strategies could potentially reduce the negative effects of discrimination among adolescents.
KeywordsLatina/o Adolescent Coping Ethnic-racial discrimination Mental health Academic Self-esteem
E.R.M. conceived the current investigation, conducted statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript; A.U.T. designed the larger study, led and coordinated data collection, conceived the current investigation, and helped to draft the manuscript; K.H.Z. conceived the current investigation, and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work was funded by internal seed funds from the PIs institution.
Data Sharing and Declaration
This manuscript’s data will not be deposited.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The current study has been conducted in accordance with APA ethical guidelines for the participation of human subjects and a University Institutional Review Board approved the informed consent and procedures in this study.
Informed parental consent and youth assent was obtained from all participants included in this study.
- Brittian, A. S., Toomey, R. B., Gonzales, N. A., & Dumka, L. E. (2013). Perceived discrimination, coping strategies, and Mexican origin adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors: Examining the moderating role of gender and cultural orientation. Applied developmental Science, 17(1), 4–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2013.748417.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Clark, S.L., & Muthén, B. (2010). Relating latent class analysis results to variables not included in the analysis. Available at http://statmodel2.com/download/relatinglca.pdf
- Colby, S. L., & Ortman, J. M. (2015). Projections of the size and composition of the U.S. population: 2014 to 2060 (Current Population Reports P25-1143). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
- Compas, B. E., Connor-Smith, J. K., Saltzman, H., Thomsen, A. H., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 87–127. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.1.87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Compas, B. E., Jaser, S. S., Bettis, A. H., Watson, K. H., Gruhn, M. A., Dunbar, J. P., & Thigpen, J. C. (2017). Coping, emotion regulation, and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis and narrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 143(9), 939–991. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Connor-Smith, J. K., Compas, B. E., Wadsworth, M. E., Thomsen, A. H., & Saltzman, H. (2000). Responses to stress in adolescence: measurement of coping and involuntary stress responses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6), 976–992. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.6.976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DeGarmo, D. S., & Martinez, C. R. (2006). A culturally informed model of academic well-being for Latino youth: the importance of discriminatory experiences and social support. Family Relations, 55(3), 267–278. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2006.00401.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Pasch, L. A., & de Groat, C. L. (2010). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57, 264–273. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hickendorff, M., Edelsbrunner, P., McMullen, J., Schneider, M., & Trezise, K. (2017). Informative tools for characterizing individual differences in learning: Latent class, latent profile, and latent transition analysis. Learning and Individual Differences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2017.11.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McDermott, E. R., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Martinez-Fuentes, S. (in press). Measuring Latino adolescents’ coping with ethnic-racial discrimination. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. Advanced online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282918792384.
- Muthén, B. O., Muthén, L. K., & Asparouhov, T. (2016). Regression and mediation analysis using Mplus. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Neblett Jr, E. W., Sosoo, E. E., Willis, H. A., Bernard, D. L., Bae, J., & Billingsley, J. T. (2016). Racism, Racial Resilience, and African American Youth Development: Person-Centered Analysis as a Tool to Promote Equity and Justice. In S.S. Horn, M.D. Ruck, L.S. Liben (Eds.) Advances in child development and behavior: Equity and Justice in Developmental Science: Implications for Young People, Families, and Communities (Vol. 51, pp. 43-79). Cambridge, MA: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.acdb.2016.05.004
- Potochnick, S. R., & Perreira, K. M. (2010). Depression and anxiety among first-generation immigrant Latino youth: key correlates and implications for future research. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(7), 470–477. https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181e4ce24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Skinner, E. A., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). The development of coping. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 119–144. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085705.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Tran, A. N., Ornelas, I. J., Perez, G., Green, M. A., Lyn, M., & Corbie-Smith, G. (2014). Evaluation of Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma (ALMA): a pilot promotora intervention focused on stress and coping among immigrant Latinas. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 16(2), 280–289. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-012-9735-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2007). Latino adolescents’ mental health: exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 30(4), 549–567. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.08.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Vargas-Chanes, D., Garcia, C. D., & Gonzales-Backen, M. (2008). Alongitudinal examination of Latino adolescents’ ethnic identity, coping with discrimination, and self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28(1), 16–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431607308666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Valiente, C., Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Spinrad, T. L., & Sulik, M. J. (2015). Coping across the transition to adolescence: evidence of interindividual consistency and mean-level change. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 35(7), 947–965. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431614548068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar