Most adolescents face numerous obstacles to good sleep, which may undermine healthy development. In this study, we used latent class analysis and identified four categories of sleep barriers in a diverse sample of 553 urban youth (57% female). The majority profile, School/Screens Barriers, reported the most homework and extracurricular barriers, along with high screen time. The Home/Screens Barriers class (i.e., high environmental noise, light, screen use) and the High/Social Barriers class (i.e., high barriers across domains, particularly social) reported the poorest sleep quality and highest depressive/anxiety symptoms. The Minimal Barriers class—predominately male, with low depressive/anxiety symptoms—reported more sleep per night. We discuss implications of our findings for targeting interventions to address poor adolescent sleep among specific clusters of students.
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We thank the study participants, the participating schools, and our research team at the University of California at Berkeley.
L.T.H. designed the current study, participated in data collection, analysis, and interpretation, and drafted the manuscript; J.M. participated in the design of the current study, interpretation of the analysis, and helped draft the manuscript; J.S.O. performed the statistical analysis and helped draft the manuscript; E.J.O. and A.G.H. designed and led the larger intervention study and provided critical revisions of the manuscript. J.D. participated in the study design and provided critical revisions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH): National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) 5 R34 DA035349-03 (co-PIs Emily J. Ozer and Allison G. Harvey). The findings and conclusions of this report are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. The NIH played no role in the study design, data collection, writing, or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures involving human participants were in accordance with the APA Ethical Standards in the treatment of the participants and approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of California, Berkeley.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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Hoyt, L.T., Maslowsky, J., Olson, J.S. et al. Adolescent Sleep Barriers: Profiles within a Diverse Sample of Urban Youth. J Youth Adolescence 47, 2169–2180 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0829-2
- Adolescent health
- Sleep barriers
- Latent class analysis
- Urban youth