Positive Developmental Changes after Transition to High School: Is Retrospective Growth Correlated with Measured Changes in Current Status of Personal Growth?
- 659 Downloads
The transition to high school is generally considered as a stressful turning point in adolescent development, but some students experience personal growth (i.e., positive developmental changes) through that experience. It is important to examine the mechanism behind such positive changes to understand various developmental patterns of adolescents during the transition. However, the concept of growth in this research area remains unexplored. Some researchers have questioned whether retrospective, self-reported growth reflects actual positive changes in the perception of personal growth. We elaborated on the concept of growth after high school transition by examining whether retrospective appraisal of personal growth after transition to high school is correlated with measured change in growth. Two hundred and sixty-two Japanese adolescents (aged 14–16 years, 50% girls) participated in surveys right before and right after transition. We assessed five domains of growth, including improved relating to others, identification of new possibilities, increased sense of personal strength, spiritual growth, and greater appreciation of life. The results showed that retrospective assessment of growth and measured change during transition were positively associated, provided the adolescents reported the transition as an important turning point in their lives. Adolescents who experienced salient positive changes across the transition were more likely to engage in intrusive and deliberate rumination and social support than adolescents who reported fewer changes. In summary, retrospective growth covaried with measured change only when adolescents perceived the transition as impactful in their lives.
KeywordsSchool transition Posttraumatic growth Event centrality Latent change score modeling Rumination Social support
This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan (Grant Numbers JP16J01937). The grants provide financial support for creative and pioneering research projects that will become the foundation of social development.
S.I. conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, performed the statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript; K.T. conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, and assisted in drafting the manuscript; all authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was funded by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan (Grant Numbers JP16J01937) to the first author.
Data Sharing Declaration
The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available, but can be obtained from the corresponding author on request only after this research project (Adolescent Development during Transition to High School Project) is complete.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by the institutional review board of Chuo University (approval number: 2017-4).
Informed consent was obtained, on an online form, from all participants.
- Albarello, F., Crocetti, E., & Rubini, M. (2017). I and us: a longitudinal study on the interplay of personal and social identity in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0791-4.
- Arbuckle, J. L. (1996). Full information estimation in the presence of incomplete data. In G. A. Marcoulides & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling: Issues and techniques (pp. 243–277). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Berntsen, D., & Rubin, D. C. (2006). The centrality of event scale: A measure of integrating a trauma into one’s identity and its relation to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 219–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.01.009.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2006). The foundations of posttraumatic growth: An expanded framework. In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 3–23). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Compas, B. E., Connor-Smith, J. K., Saltzman, H., Thomsen, A. H., & Wadsworth, M. E. (2001). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: Problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 87–127. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.1.87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hatano, K., Sugimura, K., & Schwartz, S. J. (2017). Longitudinal links between identity consolidation and psychosocial problems in adolescence: Using bi-factor latent change and cross-lagged effect models. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0785-2.
- Iimura, S. (2017). Stress-related growth in Japanese adolescents experiencing high school entrance examinations. Current Psychology, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9564-1.
- Iwase, S., & Ikeda, T. (2008). Development of Japanese Version of Duke Social Index (DSSI-J). Bulletin of Aichi Prefectural College of Nursing & Health, 14, 19–27.Google Scholar
- Kamijo, N., Taku, K., & Yukawa, S. (2016). Gender differences in the role of intrusive and deliberate ruminations on posttraumatic growth after 3.11. Presentation at the International Congress of Psychology, Yokohama, Japan, July 24–29, 2016.Google Scholar
- Kilmer, R. P 2006). Resilience and posttraumatic growth in children. In L. G. Calhoun, R. G. Tedeschi Handbook of posttraumatic growth: research and practice.(pp. 264–288). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Kilmer, R. P., & Gil-Rivas, V. (2010). Exploring posttraumatic growth in children impacted by Hurricane Katrina: Correlates of the phenomenon and developmental considerations. Child Development, 81, 1211–1227. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01463.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kilmer, R. P., Gil-Rivas, V., Griese, B., Hardy, S. J., Hafstad, G. S., & Alisic, E. (2014). Posttraumatic growth in children and youth: Clinical implications of an emerging research literature. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84, 506–518. https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klimstra, T. A., Luyckx, K., Branje, S., Teppers, E., Goossens, L., & Meeus, W. H. (2013). Personality traits, interpersonal identity, and relationship stability: Longitudinal linkages in late adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1661–1673. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9862-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maercker, A., & Zoellner, T. (2004). The Janus face of self-perceived growth: Toward a two-component model of posttraumatic growth. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 41–48.Google Scholar
- McArdle, J. J. & Nesselroade, J. R. 1994). Structuring data to study development and change. In . In S. H. Cohen, H. W. Reese Life-span developmental psychology: Methodological contributions.(pp. 223–268). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1981.tb00621.x.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. (2016). Results of 2014 survey on issues regarding student guidance concerning student’s behavior problems. http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/houdou/27/09/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2015/10/07/1362012_1_1.pdf. Accessed 8 Nov 2017.
- Naka, M. (2008). Psychology of self: An approach to cognitive psychology. Tokyo, Japan: Kaneko Shobo.Google Scholar
- Robins, R. W., Noftle, E. E., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Roberts, B. W. (2005). Do people know how their personality has changed? Correlates of perceived and actual personality change in young adulthood. Journal of Personality, 73, 489–522. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2005.00317.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takahashi, Y., Edmonds, G. W., Jackson, J. J., & Roberts, B. W. (2013). Longitudinal correlated changes in conscientiousness, preventative health-related behaviors, and self-perceived physical health. Journal of Personality, 81, 417–427. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Tsuzuki, M. (2009). Transition from junior high school to high school: A longitudinal study. Kyoto, Japan: Nakanishiya Shuppan.Google Scholar