Trends in the Perpetration of Physical Aggression among Norwegian Adolescents 2007–2015
- 592 Downloads
Most research on trends in physical aggression has shown declining levels among adolescents during the past two decades. However, few studies have attempted to explain such time trends. Based on two representative cross-sectional surveys of students in the final year of high school in 2007 (N = 6631; 58.8% girls) and 2015 (N = 4145; 60.3% girls), this study reports a substantial decline in physical aggression among Norwegian adolescents. Moreover, mediation analyses show that declining levels in problematic alcohol use and family violence during the same period are plausible explanations for some of this reduction. The results are discussed in light of contemporary changes in socialization of adolescents, and implications for violence prevention are presented.
KeywordsAggression Violence Perpetration Time trends
The authors would like to thank all the participating adolescents and the staff of the Youth Section and The Domestic Violence Research Program at Norwegian Social Research (NOVA) for comments on drafts of the article.
L.R.F. conceived the study, participated in its design and coordination, performed the statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript. T.v.S. participated in design and interpretation of the statistical analyses and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Data Sharing Declaration
The data that support the findings of this study are available from Norwegian Social Research (NOVA) but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available.
The research was supported by grants from the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and Public Security.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. All ethical aspects of the study were approved by the Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics and the Norwegian Centre for Research Data.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Andersen, A., Rasmussen, M., Bendtsen, P., Due, P., & Holstein, B. E. (2014). Secular trends in alcohol drinking among Danish 15-year-olds: Comparable representative samples from 1988 to 2010. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(4), 748–756. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Braga, T., Gonçalves, L. C., Basto-Pereira, M., & Maia, Â. (2017). Unraveling the link between maltreatment and juvenile antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis of prospective longitudinal studies. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 33, 37–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Denscombe, M. (2006). Web-based questionnaires and the mode effect. An evaluation based on completion rates and data contents of near-identical questionnaires delivered in different modes. Social Science Computer Review, 24(2), 246–254. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439305284522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gilman, A. B., Hill, K. G., Kim, B. K., Nevell, A., Hawkins, J. D., & Farrington, D. P. (2014). Understanding the relationship between self-reported offending and official criminal charges across early adulthood. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 24(4), 229–240. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.1934.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoeben, E. M., Meldrum, R. C., Walker, D. A., & Young, J. T. N. (2016). The role of peer delinquency and unstructured socializing in explaining delinquency and substance use: A state-of-the-art review. Journal of Criminal Justice, 47, 108–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2016.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jennings, W. G., Khey, D. N., Mahoney, M., & Reingle, J. (2011). Evaluating the continuity of offending from adolescence to emerging adulthood and its effect on academic failure among college student arrestees: A research note. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 22(4), 578–592. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511253.2011.590451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Odgers, C. L., Moffitt, T. E., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., & Caspi, A. (2008). Female and male antisocial trajectories: From childhood origins to adult outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 20(2), 673–716. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1979.tb02487.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J. H., Prinzie, P., Boelen, P. A., van der Schoot, M., & Telch, M. J. (2011). Prospective linkages between peer victimization and externalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 37(3), 215–222. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (2003). Life-course desisters? Trajectories of crime among delinquent boys followed to age 70. Criminology, 41(3), 555–592. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb00997.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Strand, B. H., Dalgard, O. S., Tambs, K., & Rognerud, M. (2003). Measuring the mental health status of the Norwegian population: A comparison of the instruments SCL-25, SCL-10, SCL-5 and MHI-5 (SF-36). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 57(2), 113–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039480310000932.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Swahn, M. H., Simon, T. R., Arias, I., & Bossarte, R. M. (2008). Measuring sex differences in violence victimization and perpetration within date and same-sex peer relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(8), 1120–1138. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508314086.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar