The social identities formed through membership on extracurricular activity groups may contribute to the frequency with which youth engage in prosocial and antisocial behavior. However, researchers have yet to disentangle the individual- and group-level processes social identification effects operate through; sex and perceived norms may also moderate such effects. Thus, we investigated the hierarchical and conditional relations between three dimensions of social identity (i.e., ingroup ties, cognitive centrality, ingroup affect) and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth ice hockey players (N = 376; 33% female). Multilevel analyses demonstrated antisocial teammate and opponent behavior were predicted by cognitive centrality at the team level. Further, prosocial teammate behavior was predicted by cognitive centrality and ingroup ties at the individual-level. Also, perceived norms for prosocial teammate behavior moderated the relations between ingroup ties, cognitive centrality, and ingroup affect and prosocial teammate behaviour. Finally, sex moderated the relations between cognitive centrality/ingroup affect and antisocial opponent behavior. This work demonstrates the multilevel and conditional nature of how social identity dimensions relate to youth prosocial and antisocial behavior.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
We adhere to Cameron’s (2004) conceptualization of ingroup affect, which focuses on the general positive emotions attached to group membership. This is akin to the higher-order construct of positive affect, as represented in the PANAS-X (Watson and Clark 1999). We revisit this issue in the discussion by elaborating on how a more nuanced view of ingroup affect may invigorate novel research questions.
It is important to distinguish between collective descriptive norms and perceived descriptive norms. Collective descriptive norms refer to the actual behavioral patterns enacted by members of a social group, which can be assessed through systematically documenting group member behaviors. Importantly, a behavior that is widely enacted by group members is not necessarily readily perceived and cognitively encoded by all group members (Lapinski and Rimal 2005). On the other hand, perceived descriptive norms refer to how individuals construe the social behaviors of other group members (e.g., Cialdini et al. 1990). In the context of this study, we conceptualize and focus on norms as each person’s interpretation of the social environment in which they are embedded—hereafter referred to as perceived norms.
k represents the number of teams for each category and n represents the number of participants. Peewee ranges from 11 to 12 year olds, Bantam ranges from 13 to 14 year olds, and Midget ranges from 15 to 17 years old.
It was anticipated that when individuals perceive more of the prosocial/antisocial behavior from their teammates then the social identity would have a stronger influence on prosocial/antisocial behaviors. As such only the level 1 interaction between perceived norms and social identity was included. This interaction shows the influence of a player perceiving more behaviors than their teammates but does not account for when one team exhibits more behavior than another team. Theoretically, it would be informative to also examine whether the relations between social identity and prosocial/antisocial behaviors are moderated by such group-level norms (i.e., cross-level interaction) as this would show the effect of collective descriptive norms. The focus for this study was on the individual level perceived norms and the individual effects. Additionally, upon inspection of our initial analysis, there was no significant variability in the slopes of the social identity-prosocial/antisocial behavior relations between teams at level 2. Thus, we examined whether the relations between social identity and prosocial/antisocial behaviors were moderated by perceived norms and sex at the individual level.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Allen, J. B. (2003). Social motivation in youth sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25(4), 551–567. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.25.4.551.
Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of social and clinical psychology, 4(3), 359–373. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.19126.96.36.1999.
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 248–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-59778(91)90022-L.
Bandura, A. (1999). Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and social psychology review, 3(3), 193–209. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0303_3.
Barsade, S. G., & Gibson, D. E. (2012). Group affect: its influence on individual and group outcomes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 119–123. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721412438352.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497.
Benson, A., Bruner, M. W., & Eys, M. (2017). A social identity approach to understanding the conditions associated with antisocial behaviours among teammates in female teams. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 6(2), 129–142. https://doi.org/10.1037.spy0000090.
Boardley, I. D., & Kavussanu, M. (2009). The influence of social variables and moral disengagement on prosocial and antisocial behaviours in field hockey and netball. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(8), 843–854. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410902887283.
Boardley, I. D., & Kavussanu, M. (2010). Effects of goal orientation and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior in soccer: the mediating role of moral disengagement. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32(2), 176–192. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.32.2.176.
Boman, IV, J. H., Young, J. T., Baldwin, J. M., & Meldrum, R. C. (2014). Specifying the sources of misperceptions of peer deviance: A tale of two levels. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(1), 91–113. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854813496998.
Brechwald, W. A., & Prinstein, M. J. (2011). Beyond homophily: A decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 166–179. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00721.x.
Brown, B. B., & Lohr, M. J. (1987). Peer-group affiliation and adolescent self-esteem: An integration of ego-identity and symbolic-interaction theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 47 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52.
Bruner, M. W., Balish, S. M., Forrest, C., Brown, S., Webber, K., Gray, E., McGuckin, M., Keats, M. R., Rehman, L. & Shields, C. A. (2017). Ties that bond: youth sport as a vehicle for social identity and positive youth development. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(2), 209–214. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2017.1296100.
Bruner, M. W., Boardley, I., Allen, V., Forrest, C., Root, Z., & Côté, J. (2017). Understanding social identity and intrateam moral behavior in competitive youth ice hockey: a Narrative Perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 31, 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2015-0117.
Bruner, M. W., Boardley, I., & Côté, J. (2014). Social identity and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 56–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.003.
Bruner, M. W., Boardley, I., Forrest, C., Buckham, S., Root, Z., Allen, V., & Côté, J. (2017). Examining social identity and intrateam moral behaviours in competitive youth ice hockey using stimulated recall. Journal of Sport Sciences., 35(20), 1963–1974. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1243797.
Bruner, M. W., Dunlop, W., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2014). A social identity perspective on group processes in sport and exercise. In M. R. Beauchamp & M. A. Eys (Ed.), Group dynamics in exercise and sport psychology (2nd ed.). (pp. 38–52). New York, NY: Routledge.
Bruner, M. W., Eys, M. A., Wilson, K., & Côté, J. (2014). Group cohesion and positive youth development in team sport athletes. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 3(4), 219–227. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000017.
Bruner, M. W., Eys, M. A., Evans, M. B., & Wilson, K. (2015). Interdependence and social identity in youth sport teams. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 27(3), 351–358. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2015.1010661.
Cameron, J. E. (2004). A three-factor model of social identity. Self and Identity, 3(3), 239–262. https://doi.org/10.1080/13576500444000047.
Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta‐analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child development, 79(5), 1185–1229. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x.
Carlo, G., McGinley, M., Hayes, R., Batenhorst, C., & Wilkinson, J. (2007). Parenting styles or practices? Parenting, sympathy, and prosocial behaviors among adolescents. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 168(2), 147–176. https://doi.org/10.3200/GNTP.168.2.147-176.
Carlo, G., Mestre, M. V., McGinley, M. M., Tur-Porcar, A., Samper, P., & Opal, D. (2014). The protective role of prosocial behaviors on antisocial behaviors: The mediating effects of deviant peer affiliation. Journal of Adolescence, 37(4), 359–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.02.009.
Cialdini, R. B., Reno, R. R., & Kallgren, C. A. (1990). A focus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(6), 1015 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2065.
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1998). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 779–862). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Eagly, A. H. (2009). The his and hers of prosocial behavior: an examination of the social psychology of gender. American Psychologist, 64(8), 644. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.64.8.644.
Eagly, A. H., & Crowley, M. (1986). Gender and helping behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100(3), 283 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.100.3.283.
Eccles, J. S., Barber, B. L., Stone, M., & Hunt, J. (2003). Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. Journal of Social Issues, 59(4), 865–889. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0022-4537.3003.00095.x.
Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C., & Shepard, S. A. (2005). Age changes in prosocial responding and moral reasoning in adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15(3), 235–260. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00095.x.
Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1998). Prosocial development. In N. Eisenberg & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social emotional and personality development. 5th edn. (pp. 701–778). New York: Wiley.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial development. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional and personality development (pp. 646–718). New York, NY: Wiley.
Eisenberg, M. E., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., & Perry, C. (2005). The role of social norms and friends’ influences on unhealthy weight-control behaviors among adolescent girls. Social Science & Medicine, 60(6), 1165–1173.
Ellis, W., Zarbatany, L., Chen, X., Kinal, M., & Boyko, L. (2017). Peer groups as a context for school misconduct: The moderating role of group interactional style. Child Development. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12722.
Enders, C. K., & Tofighi, D. (2007). Centering predictor variables in cross-sectional multilevel models: a new look at an old issue. Psychological Methods, 12(2), 121–138. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.12.2.121.
Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society. 2d edn., rev. and enl.. New York: Norton.
Evans, M. B., Adler, A., MacDonald, D. J., & Côté, J. (2016). Bullying victimization and perpetration in adolescent sport teams. Pediatric Exercise Science, 28(2), 296–303. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2015-0088.
Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Developmental benefits of extracurricular involvement: Do peer characteristics mediate the link between activities and youth outcomes? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(6), 507–520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-005-8933-5.
Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations. Developmental Psychology, 42(4), 698 https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.118.
Glomb, T. M., Richman, W. L., Hulin, C. L., Drasgow, F., Schneider, K. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71(3), 309–328. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1997.2741.
Goette, L., Huffman, D., & Meier, S. (2012). The impact of social ties on group interactions: evidence from minimal groups and randomly assigned real groups. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 4(1), 101–115.
Goldman, L., Giles, H., & Hogg, M. A. (2014). Going to extremes: Social identity and communication processes associated with gang membership. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 17(6), 813–832. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430214524289.
Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2013). Social influences on cyberbullying behaviors among middle and high school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(5), 711–722. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9902-4.
Hogg, M. A. (2006). Self-conceptual uncertainty and the lure of belonging. In R. Brown & D. Capozza (Eds.), Social identities: Motivational, emotional, and cultural influences (pp. 33–49). Hove, England: Psychology Press.
Hornsey, M. J. (2008). Social identity theory and self‐categorization theory: a historical review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 204–222. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.17519004.2007.00066.x.
Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2012). Head-mounted cameras and stimulated recall in qualitative sport research. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise, and Health, 4(1), 51–61. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2011.653495.
International Ice Hockey Federation. (2016). 2016 Annual Report of the International Ice Hockey Federation. http://www.iihf.com/fileadmin/user_upload/BigFiles/AnnualReport/2016AnnualReport.pdf.
Kavussanu, M., & Boardley, I. D. (2009). The prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31(1), 97–117. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.31.1.97.
Kavussanu, M., Seal, A. R., & Phillips, D. R. (2006). Observed prosocial and antisocial behaviors in male soccer teams: Age differences across adolescence and the role of motivational variables. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18(4), 326–344. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200600944108.
Kavussanu, M., Stamp, R., Slade, G., & Ring, C. (2009). Observed prosocial and antisocial behaviors in male and female soccer players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, S62–S76. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200802624292.
Krueger, R. F., Hicks, B. M., & McGue, M. (2001). Altruism and antisocial behavior: Independent tendencies, unique personality correlates, distinct etiologies. Psychological Science, 12(5), 397–402. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00373.
Lapinski, M. K., & Rimal, R. N. (2005). An explication of social norms. Communication Theory, 15, 127–147. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2005.tb00329.x.
Malti, T., & Krettenauer, T. (2013). The relation of moral emotion attributions to prosocial and antisocial behavior: A meta‐analysis. Child development, 84(2), 397–412. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01851.x.
Martin, L. J., Balderson, D., Hawkins, M., Wilson, K., & Bruner, M. W. (2017). The influence of social identity on self-worth, commitment, and effort in school-based youth sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1306091.
Maxwell, K. A. (2002). Friends: The role of peer influence across adolescent risk behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(4), 267–277.
McClelland, G. H., & Judd, C. M. (1993). Statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114(2), 376 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.2.376.
Merrilees, C. E., Cairns, E., Taylor, L. K., Goeke‐Morey, M. C., Shirlow, P., & Cummings, E. M. (2013). Social identity and youth aggressive and delinquent behaviors in a context of political violence. Political Psychology, 34(5), 695–711. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12030.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus statistical modeling software: Release 7.0. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2001). Group identity and alienation: Giving the we its due. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(5), 515–538. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010480003929.
Nezlek, J. B., & Smith, C. V. (2005). Social identity in daily social interaction. Self and Identity, 4(3), 243–261. https://doi.org/10.1080/13576500444000308.
Ostrov, J. M., Murray-Close, D., Godleski, S. A., & Hart, E. J. (2013). Prospective associations between forms and functions of aggression and social and affective processes during early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116(1), 19–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.12.009.
Penner, L. A., Dovidio, J. F., Piliavin, J. A., & Schroeder, D. A. (2005). Prosocial behavior: Multilevel perspectives. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 365–392. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070141.
Pfeifer, J. H., & Peake, S. J. (2012). Self-development: Integrating cognitive, socioemotional, and neuroimaging perspectives. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2(1), 55–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2011.07.012.
Rees, T., Haslam, S. A., Coffee, P., & Lavallee, D. (2015). A social identity approach to sport psychology: Principles, practice, and prospects. Sports Medicine, 45(8), 1083–1096. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0345-4.
Rideout, V. (2012). Social media social life: How teens view their digital lives. Common Sense Media. http://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/social-media-social-life. Accessed 1 August 2017
Rimal, R. N., & Lapinski, M. K. (2015). A re‐explication of social norms, ten years later. Communication Theory, 25(4), 393–409. https://doi.org/10.1111/comt.12080.
Robinson, S. L., & O'Leary-Kelly, A. M. (1998). Monkey see, monkey do: The influence of work groups on the antisocial behavior of employees. Academy of Management Journal, 41(6), 658–672. https://doi.org/10.2307/256963.
Sage, L., & Kavussanu, M. (2007). The effects of goal involvement on moral behavior in an experimentally manipulated competitive setting. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29(2), 190–207. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.29.2.190.
Sage, L., Kavussanu, M., & Duda, J. (2006). Goal orientations and moral identity as predictors of prosocial and antisocial functioning in male association football players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(5), 455–466. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500244531.
Shapcott, K. M., Bloom, G. A., & Loughead, T. M. (2007). An initial exploration of the factors influencing aggressive and assertive intentions of women ice hockey players. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 38(2), 145–162.
Sherif, O. J., Harvey, B., White, J. B., Hood, W. R., & Sherif, C. W. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The robbers cave experiment. Norman, Okla: University Book Exchange.
Shields, D. L., Bredemeier, B. L., LaVoi, N. M., & Power, C. F. (2005). The behavior of youth, parents, and coaches: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal of Research in Character Education, 3(1), 43–59.
Shields, D. L., LaVoi, N. M., Bredemeier, B. L., & Power, F. C. (2007). Predictors of poor sportspersonship in youth sports: Personal attitudes and social influences. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29(6), 747–762. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.29.6.747.
Smith, M. D. (1979). Hockey violence: A test of the violent subculture hypothesis. Social Problems, 27(2), 235–247. https://doi.org/10.2307/800371.
Smith, K. C., Ulch, S. E., Cameron, J. E., Cumberland, J. A., Musgrave, M. A., & Tremblay, N. (1989). Gender-related effects in the perception of anger expression. Sex Roles, 20(9), 487–499.
Sussman, S., Pokhrel, P., Ashmore, R. D., & Brown, B. B. (2007). Adolescent peer group identification and characteristics: A review of the literature. Addictive behaviors, 32(8), 1602–1627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.11.018.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. 5th edn. Boston, MA: Alyn & Bacon.
Tanti, C., Stukas, A. A., Halloran, M. J., & Foddy, M. (2011). Social identity change: Shifts in social identity during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 555–567.
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Tajfel, H. (1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination. Scientific American, 223(5), 96–102.
Tajfel, H., Billig, M., Bundy, R. P., & Flament, C. (1971). Social categorization and intergroup behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1(2), 149–178. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420010202.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. Austin (Ed.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks-Cole.
Terry, D. J., & Hogg, M. A. (1996). Group norms and the attitude-behavior relationship: A role for group identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(8), 776–793. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167296228002.
Terry, D. J., Hogg, M. A., & White, K. M. (1999). The theory of planned behaviour: self‐identity, social identity and group norms. British Journal of Social Psychology, 38(3), 225–244. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466699164149.
Tidwell, M. V. (2005). A social identity model of prosocial behaviors within non-profit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 15(4), 449–467. https://doi.org/10.1002/(ISSN) 1542-7854.
Tyler, T. R., & Blader, S. L. (2001). Identity and cooperative behavior in groups. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 4(3), 207–226. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430201004003003.
Tucker, L. W., & Parks, J. B. (2001). Effects of gender and sport type on intercollegiate athletes’ perceptions of the legitimacy of aggressive behaviors in sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18(4), 403–413. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.18.4.403.
van Hoorn, J., Dijk, E., Meuwese, R., Rieffe, C., & Crone, E. A. (2016). Peer influence on prosocial behavior in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26(1), 90–100. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12173.
Vanier, J. L., Bloom, G. A., & Loughead, T. M. (2005). Personal experience, rules, procedures, and aspects of aggression in competitive woman’s ice hockey. Avante, 11, 66–82.
van Kleef, G. A., & Fischer, A. H. (2016). Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups. Cognition and Emotion, 30(1), 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2015.1081349.
Veenstra, R., Dijkstra, J. K., Steglich, C., & Van Zalk, M. H. (2013). Network–behavior dynamics. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(3), 399–412. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora/12070.
Venkataramani, V., & Dalal, R. S. (2007). Who helps and harms whom? Relational antecedents of interpersonal helping and harming in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4), 952–966. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.952.
Wagner, W. G. (1996). Facilitating optimal development in adolescence: Introductory remarks. Counseling Psychologist, 24(3), 357–359. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000096243001.
Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). The PANAS-X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule-Expanded form. Unpublished manuscript.
Young, J. T., Barnes, J. C., Meldrum, R. C., & Weerman, F. M. (2011). Assessing and explaining misperceptions of peer delinquency. Criminology, 49(2), 599–630. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2011.00232.x.
Young, J. T., & Weerman, F. M. (2013). Delinquency as a consequence of misperception: Overestimation of friends’ delinquent behavior and mechanisms of social influence. Social Problems, 60(3), 334–356. https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2013.60.3.334.
This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (#435-2016-0591, #43502014-0038). The authors wish to thank all the participating hockey associations, coaches, teams, and young athletes that participated in the study.
M.W.B. conceptualized and designed the study, supervised overall data acquisition, conducted the analysis, provided interpretation of findings, and led the writing of the manuscript; I.D.B. conceptualized and designed the study, conducted the data analysis, provided interpretation of the findings, and critically revised the manuscript; A.J.B. contributed to the conceptualization and design of the study, conducted the data analysis, provided interpretation of the findings, and drafted and critically revised parts of the manuscript; K.S.W. contributed to the conceptualization and design of the study, conducted the data analysis, provided interpretation of the findings, and critically revised the manuscript; Z.R. supervised data acquisition, participated in drafting and revising parts of the manuscript; J.T. contributed to the conceptualization and design, supervised data acquisition, and critically revised the manuscript; J.S. contributed to the data collection, participated in drafting and revising parts of the manuscript; J.C. conceptualized and designed the study, contributed to data analysis and interpretation of findings, and critically revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The institutional review board at Nipissing University has approved this study.
Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the youth athlete participants. All youth athletes gave active assent prior to administration of the survey.
About this article
Cite this article
Bruner, M.W., Boardley, I.D., Benson, A.J. et al. Disentangling the Relations between Social Identity and Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Competitive Youth Sport. J Youth Adolescence 47, 1113–1127 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0769-2
- Group dynamics
- Team identification
- Personal development
- Physical activity