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Table 5 Regression of received rejection nominations (Model 3 and Model 3b) and probability of bullying victimization (Model 6 and Model 6b) on relative household income, own economic and material deprivation, and control variables. Model 3 and Model 6 are equivalent to the corresponding models in Table 2. Model 3b and Model 6b include additional control variables for internalizing and externalizing behaviour

From: Poor Kids? Economic Resources and Adverse Peer Relations in a Nationally Representative Sample of Swedish Adolescents

  Peer rejection (n = 3895) Bullying victimization (n = 4548)
  Model 3 Model 3b Model 6 Model 6b
Household income (ref., Quintile 3)
 Quintile 1 0.551** 0.564** −0.011 −0.008
  (0.163) (0.162) (0.017) (0.016)
 Quintile 2 0.271 0.242 0.000 −0.006
  (0.157) (0.155) (0.018) (0.017)
 Quintile 4 0.010 0.024 0.016 0.019
  (0.133) (0.133) (0.018) (0.017)
 Quintile 5 −0.026 −0.016 0.002 0.004
  (0.153) (0.151) (0.016) (0.015)
Not living with both parents 0.033 −0.050 0.028* 0.018
  (0.124) (0.122) (0.012) (0.011)
Parental education (ref., Upper secondary)
 Comprehensive school or lower 0.191 0.195 −0.007 −0.014
  (0.249) (0.248) (0.024) (0.023)
 University −0.205* −0.198* 0.009 0.006
  (0.079) (0.078) (0.012) (0.012)
Migration background (ref., Majority)
 Second generation 0.258 0.239 −0.042** −0.038**
  (0.139) (0.138) (0.013) (0.013)
 First generation ≥ 2years 0.245 0.253 0.004 0.012
  (0.212) (0.215) (0.022) (0.021)
 First generation, < 2 years 2.304** 2.320** 0.122 0.080
  (0.463) (0.465) (0.123) (0.093)
Parent has disability pension 0.457* 0.420* 0.031 0.026
  (0.194) (0.194) (0.024) (0.023)
Parent is unemployed 0.328 0.285 0.001 −0.004
  (0.185) (0.180) (0.021) (0.019)
Misses activities due to lack of money 0.673** 0.516* 0.109** 0.065**
  (0.253) (0.254) (0.027) (0.023)
Adolescent lacks cash margin 0.092 0.103 0.040** 0.028**
  (0.097) (0.097) (0.011) (0.011)
Adolescent lacks own room 0.267 0.278 0.007 0.008
  (0.216) (0.219) (0.024) (0.023)
Own material resources (0–4) 0.017 −0.000 −0.006 −0.007
  (0.047) (0.046) (0.006) (0.005)
Externalizing behaviour   0.645**   0.022
   (0.174)   (0.012)
Internalizing problems   0.155   0.095**
   (0.085)   (0.007)
Cognitive test score (centered) −0.058** −0.054**   
  (0.011) (0.011)   
Girl −0.306** −0.348** −0.013 −0.050**
  (0.117) (0.120) (0.012) (0.012)
Age at interview (centered) −0.230 −0.232 0.002 0.003
  (0.124) (0.124) (0.014) (0.014)
Constant −0.322 −0.496**   
  (0.178) (0.181)   
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01