Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 16–37 | Cite as

Is Integration Always most Adaptive? The Role of Cultural Identity in Academic Achievement and in Psychological Adaptation of Immigrant Students in Germany

Empirical Research
  • 610 Downloads

Abstract

Immigrant adaptation research views identification with the mainstream context as particularly beneficial for sociocultural adaptation, including academic achievement, and identification with the ethnic context as particularly beneficial for psychological adaptation. A strong identification with both contexts is considered most beneficial for both outcomes (integration hypothesis). However, it is unclear whether the integration hypothesis applies in assimilative contexts, across different outcomes, and across different immigrant groups. This study investigates the association of cultural identity with several indicators of academic achievement and psychological adaptation in immigrant adolescents (N = 3894, 51% female, M age= 16.24, SD age = 0.71) in Germany. Analyses support the integration hypothesis for aspects of psychological adaptation but not for academic achievement. Moreover, for some outcomes, findings vary across immigrant groups from Turkey (n = 809), the former Soviet Union (n = 712), and heterogeneous other countries (n = 2373). The results indicate that the adaptive potential of identity integration is limited in assimilative contexts, such as Germany, and that it may vary across different outcomes and groups. As each identification is positively associated with at least one outcome, however, both identification dimensions seem to be important for the adaptation of immigrant adolescents.

Keywords

Cultural identity Acculturation Migration Academic achievement Psychological adaptation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This article uses data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS): Starting Cohort 4—9th Grade, doi:10.5157/NEPS:SC4:4.0.0. From 2008 to 2013, NEPS data were collected as part of the Framework Programme for the Promotion of Empirical Educational Research funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). As of 2014, the NEPS survey is carried out by the Leibniz Institute for Educational Trajectories (LIfBi) at the University of Bamberg in cooperation with a nationwide network. We would like to thank Melissa R. Herman for writing assistance and Birgit Heppt as well as Tim Müller for statistical advice.

Authors' Contributions

K.S. further developed the conception and design of the study, drafted the manuscript, and performed the statistical analysis; P.S. participated in the design and coordination of the study and helped to draft the manuscript; A.E. primarily conceived of the study, participated in its design and in the interpretation of the data, developed key instruments and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This research was conducted at the Berlin Institute for Integration and Migration Research (BIM) and was supported by a grant from the Hertie Foundation [grant number P1160009] and the German Football Association, DFB (Kristin Schotte). It was also supported by the Grant STA 626/8-2 from the German Research Foundation (DFG) conducted within Priority Programme 1646, “Education as a Lifelong Process” (Aileen Edele).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Alba, R., & Nee, V. (2003). Remaking the American mainstream. Assimilation and contemporary immigration. Cambridge, England: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altschul, I., Oyserman, D., & Bybee, D. (2006). Racial-ethnic identity in mid-adolescence: Content and change as predictors of academic achievement. Child Development, 77(5), 1155–1169.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00926.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altschul, I., Oysermann, D., & Bybee, D. (2008). Racial-ethnic self-schemas and segmented assimilation: Identity and academic achievement of Hispanic youth. Social Psychology Quarterly, 71(3), 302–320.  https://doi.org/10.1177/019027250807100309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arbuckle, J. L. (1996). Full information estimation in the presence of incomplete data. In G. A. Marcoulides & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), Advanced structural equation modeling (pp. 243–277). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Arends-Tóth, J., & van de Vijver, F. R. (2006). Assessment of psychological acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 142–160). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489891.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armenta, B. E. (2010). Stereotype boost and stereotype threat effects: The moderating role of ethnic identification. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(1), 94–98.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asbrock, F. (2010). Stereotypes of social groups in Germany in terms of warmth and competence. Social Psychology, 41, 76–81.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asbrock, F., Lemmer, G., Becker, J. C., Koller, J., & Wagner, U. (2014). “Who are these foreigners anyway?” The content of the term foreigner and its impact on prejudice. SAGE Open, 4(2), 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014532819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aßmann, C., Steinhauer, H. W., Kiesl, H., Koch, S., Schönberger, B., Müller-Kuller, A., et al. (2011). Sampling designs of the National Educational Panel Study: Challenges and solutions. In H.-P. Blossfeld, H.-G. Roßbach & J. von Maurice (Eds.), Education as a lifelong process – The German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) [Special Issue.]. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 14 (pp. 51–67). Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11618-011-0181-8.Google Scholar
  10. Aydinli-Karakulak, A., & Dimitrova, R. (2016). Brief report: When does identity lead to negative affective experiences? A comparison of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 47, 125–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.09.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Banting, K., & Kymlicka, W. (2013). Is there really a retreat from multiculturalism policies? New evidence from the multiculturalism policy index. Comparative European Politics, 11(5), 577–598.  https://doi.org/10.1057/cep.2013.12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baysu, G., Phalet, K., & Brown, R. (2011). Dual identity as a two-edged sword: Identity threat and minority school performance. Social Psychology Quarterly, 74(2), 121–143.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272511407619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benet-Martínez, V., Lee, F., & Leu, J. (2006). Biculturalism and cognitive complexity: Expertise in cultural representations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(4), 386–407.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022106288476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46(1), 5–34.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01087.x.Google Scholar
  15. Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 55(3), 303–332.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berry, J. W., & Sabatier, C. (2011). Variations in the assessment of acculturation attitudes: Their relationships with psychological wellbeing. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(5), 658–669.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Birman, D. (1998). Biculturalism and perceived competence of Latino immigrant adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(3), 335–354.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022101219563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Birman, D., Persky, I., & Chan, W. Y. (2010). Multiple identities of Jewish immigrant adolescents from the former soviet union: An exploration of salience and impact of ethnic identity. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34(3), 193–205.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025409350948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Birman, D., & Simon, C. D. (2014). Acculturation research: Challenges, complexities, and possibilities. In F. T. L. Leong, L. Comas- Díaz, G. C. Nagayama Hall, V. C. McLoyd & J. E. Trimble (Eds.), APA handbook of multicultural psychology, Vol. 1: Theory and research (pp. 207–230). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.  https://doi.org/10.1037/14189-011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blohm, M., & Wasmer, M. (2008). Einstellungen und Kontakte zu Ausländern. [Attitudes towards and contacts with foreigners.] In Datenreport 2008: Ein Sozialbericht für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland [Datareport 2008: A social report for the Federal Republic of Germany.], edited by Statistisches Bundesamt (Wiesbaden), Gesellschaft Sozialwissenschaftlicher Infrastruktureinrichtungen (GESIS-ZUMA, Mannheim, Zentrum für Sozialindikatorenforschung, Heinz-Herbert Noll) & Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB, Zentrales Datenmanagement, Roland Habich). Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.Google Scholar
  21. Blossfeld, H.-P., Roßbach, H.-G. & von Maurice, J. (Eds.). (2011). Education as a lifelong process: The German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) [Special Issue]. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag 14.Google Scholar
  22. Bourhis, R. Y., Moise, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senécal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32(6), 369–386.  https://doi.org/10.1080/002075997400629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Branscombe, N. R., Schmitt, M. T., & Harvey, R. D. (1999). Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African Americans: Implications for group identification and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(1), 135–149.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.1.135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, R., Baysu, G., Cameron, L., Nigbur, D., Rutland, A., Watters, C., et al. (2013). Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: A longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(12), 1656–1667.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167213500149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brüß, J. (2005). Proud but isolated? Effects of in-group favouritism and acculturation preferences on inter-ethnic attitudes and contact between German, Turkish and resettler adolescents. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(1), 3–27.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000305663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Byrd, C. M., & Chavous, T. (2009). Racial identity and academic achievement in the neighborhood context: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(4), 544–559.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9381-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cole, B., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2007). The moderating role of ethnic identity and social support on relations between well-being and academic performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(3), 592–615.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00176.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cummins, R., & Lau, A. (2005). Personal wellbeing index – School children. Deakin University, Australian Centre on Quality of Life website: http://www.acqol.com.au/iwbg/wellbeing-index/pwi-sc-english.pdf.
  29. de Vroome, T., Martinovic, B., & Verkuyten, M. (2014). The integration paradox: Level of education and immigrants’ attitudes towards natives and the host society. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(2), 166–175.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dimitrova, R., Aydinli, A., Chasiotis, A., Bender, M., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2015). Heritage identity and maintenance enhance well-being of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents. Social Psychology, 46(2), 93–103.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duchhardt, C., & Gerdes, A. (2013). NEPS technical report for mathematics – Scaling results of starting cohort 4 in ninth grade (NEPS Working Paper No. 22). National Educational Panel Study website: https://www.neps-data.de/Portals/0/Working%20Papers/WP_XXII.pdf.
  32. Eccles, J. S., Wong, C. A., & Peck, S. C. (2006). Ethnicity as a social context for the development of African-American adolescents. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 407–426.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2006.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Edele, A., Stanat, P., Radmann, S., & Segeritz, M. (2013). Kulturelle Identität und Lesekompetenz von Jugendlichen aus zugewanderten Familien [Cultural identity and reading achievement of students with an immigrant background]. In N. Jude & E. Klieme (Eds.), PISA 2009 - Impulse für die Schul- und Unterrichtsforschung [Special Issue]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 59 pp. 84–110, Weinheim, Germany: Beltz.Google Scholar
  34. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  35. Fordham, S., & Ogbu, J. (1986). Black students’ school success: Coping with the “burden of ‘acting white’”. The Urban Review, 18(3), 176–206.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01112192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Frankenberg, E., Kupper, K., Wagner, R., & Bongard, S. (2013). Immigrant youth in Germany. Psychological and sociocultural adaptation. European Psychologist, 18(3), 158–168.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ganzeboom, H. B. G. (2010). A new international socio-economic index (ISEI) of occupational status for the international standard classification of occupation 2008 (ISCO-08) constructed with data from the ISSP 2002-2007. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of International Social Survey Programme, Lisbon, Portugal. Abstract http://www.harryganzeboom.nl/pdf/2010-Ganzeboom-ISEI08-ISSP-Lisbon-(paper).pdf.
  38. Gartner, M., Kiang, L., & Supple, A. (2014). Prospective links between ethnic socialization, ethnic and American identity, and well-being among Asian-American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(10), 1715–1727.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-0044-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gehrer, K., Zimmermann, S., Artelt, C., & Weinert, S. (2013). NEPS framework for assessing reading competence and results from an adult pilot study. Journal for Educational Research Online, 5(2), 50–79.Google Scholar
  40. Haberkorn, K., Pohl, S., Hardt, K., & Wiegand, E. (2012). NEPS technical report for reading – Scaling results of starting cohort 4 in ninth grade (NEPS Working Paper No. 16). National Educational Panel Study website: https://www.neps-data.de/Portals/0/Working%20Papers/WP_XVI.pdf.
  41. Hachfeld, A., Hahn, A., Schroeder, S., Anders, Y., & Kunter, M. (2015). Should teachers be colorblind? How multicultural and egalitarian beliefs differentially relate to aspects of teachers’ professional competence for teaching in diverse classrooms. Teaching and Teacher Education, 48, 44–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hannover, B., Morf, C. C., Neuhaus, J., Rau, M., Wolfgramm, C., & Zander-Music, L. (2013). How immigrant adolescents’ self-views in school and family context relate to academic success in Germany. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(1), 175–189.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.00991.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Horenczyk, G. (2010). Language and identity in the school adjustment of immigrant students in Israel. In C. Allemann-Ghionda, P. Stanat, K. Göbel & C. Röhner (Eds.), Migration, Identität, Sprache und Bildungserfolg [Special Issue]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 55 (pp. 44–58). Weinheim, Germany: Beltz.Google Scholar
  44. Huddleston, T., Niessen, J., Chaoimh, E. N., & White, E. (2011). Migrant Integration Policy Index III. Brussels, Belgium: British Council and Migration Policy Group. http://www.mipex.eu/sites/default/files/downloads/migrant_integration_policy_index_mipexiii_2011.pdf.Google Scholar
  45. Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., Liebkind, K., & Solheim, E. (2009). To identify or not to identify? National disidentification as an alternative reaction to perceived ethnic discrimination. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 58(1), 105–128.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00384.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kahraman, B., & Knoblich, G. (2000). “Stechen statt Sprechen”: Valenz und Aktivierbarkeit von Stereotypen über Türken. [Stabbing stead speaking: Valence and activatability of stereotypes against Turks.]. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 31(1), 31–43.  https://doi.org/10.1024/0044-3514.31.1.31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kiang, L., Witkow, M. R., & Champagne, M. C. (2013). Normative changes in ethnic and American identities and links with adjustment among Asian American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 49(9), 1713–1722.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kleinert, C. (2004). Fremden Feindlichkeit. Einstellungen junger Deutscher zu Migranten. [Xenophobia. Attitudes of young Germans towards migrants.]. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  49. Kogan, I. (2011). New immigrants — Old disadvantage patterns? Labour market integration of recent immigrants into Germany. International Migration, 49(1), 91–117.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00609.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuncel, N. R., Credé, M., & Thomas, L. L. (2005). The validity of self-reported grade point averages, class ranks, and test scores: A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 75(1), 63–82.  https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543075001063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liebkind, K. (2006). Ethnic identity and acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 78–96). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489891.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liebkind, K. & Jasinskaja-Lahti, I. (2000). The influence of experiences of discrimination on psychological stress: A comparison of seven immigrant groups. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 10(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1298(200001/02)10:1<1::AID-CASP521>3.0.CO;2-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lorenz, G. (2017). Selbsterfüllende Prophezeiungen in der Schule. Leistungserwartungen von Lehrkräften und Kompetenzen von Kindern mit Zuwanderungshintergrund. [Self-fulfilling prophecies at school. Teachers’ performance expectations and immigrant children's academic achievement.]. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag. (in press).Google Scholar
  54. Lorenz, G., Gentrup, S., Kristen, C., Stanat, P., & Kogan, I. (2016). Stereotype bei Lehrkräften? Eine Untersuchung systematisch verzerrter Lehrererwartungen [Stereotypes among teachers? A study of systematic bias in teacher expectations]. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 68(1), 89–111.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11577-015-0352-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803–855.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Makarova, E., & Birman, D. (2015). Cultural transition and academic achievement of students from ethnic minority backgrounds: A content analysis of empirical research on acculturation. Educational Research, 57(3), 305–330.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2015.1058099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McKnight, P. E., McKnight, K. M., Sidani, S., & Figueredo, A. J. (2007). Missing data: A gentle introduction. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  58. Mood, C., Jonsson, J. O., & Låftman, S. B. (2016). Immigrant integration and youth mental health in four European countries. European Sociological Review, 32(6), 716–729.  https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcw027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mood, C., Jonsson, J. O., & Låftman, S. B. (2017). The mental health advantage of immigrant-background youth: The role of family factors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79(2), 419-436.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12340.
  60. Mossakowski, K. N. (2003). Coping with perceived discrimination: Does ethnic identity protect mental health? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(3), 318–331. https://doi.org/10.2307/1519782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Neumann, I., Duchhardt, C., Grüßing, M., Heinze, A., Knopp, E., & Ehmke, T. (2013). Modeling and assessing mathematical competence over the lifespan. Journal for Educational Research Online, 5 (2), 80–109. http://www.pedocs.de/volltexte/2013/8426/pdf/JERO_2013_2_Neumann_et_al_Modeling_and_assessing_mathematical_competencies.pdf.
  62. Nguyen, A.-M. T. D., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2013). Biculturalism and adjustment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(1), 122–159.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022111435097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. OECD. (1999). Measuring student knowledge and skills: A new framework for assessment. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  64. OECD. (2003). The PISA 2003 assessment framework: Mathematics, reading, science and problem-solving knowledge and skills. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264101739-en.Google Scholar
  65. OECD. (2010). PISA 2009 results. Overcoming social background: Equity in learning opportunities and outcomes (Vol. II). Paris, France: OECD Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264091504-en.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Olczyk, M., Will, G., & Kristen, C. (2014). Immigrants in the NEPS: Identifying generation status and group of origin (NEPS Working Paper No. 41a). Retrieved from National Educational Panel Study website: https://www.neps-data.de/Portals/0/Working%20Papers/WP_XXXXIa.pdf.
  67. Oysermann, D., Kemmelmeier, M., Fryberg, S., Brosh, H., & Hart-Johnson, T. (2003). Racial-ethnic self-schemas. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66(4), 333–347.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1519833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108(3), 499–514.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Phinney, J. S. (2006). Ethnic identity exploration in emerging adulthood. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  70. Phinney, J. S., Berry, J. W., Vedder, P., & Liebkind, K. (2006). The acculturation experience: Attitudes, identities, and behaviors of immigrant youth. In J. W. Berry, J. S. Phinney, D. L. Sam & P. Vedder (Eds.), Immigrant youth in cultural transition. Acculturation, identity, and adaptation across national contexts (pp. 71–116). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  71. Phinney, J. S., Cantu, C. L., & Kurtz, D. A. (1997). Ethnic and American identity as predictors of self-esteem among African American, Latino, and white adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26(2), 165–185.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024500514834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Phinney, J. S., & Devich-Navarro, M. (1997). Variations in bicultural identification among African American and Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7(1), 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Phinney, J. S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K., & Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being: An interactional perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 493–510.  https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Phinney, J. S., & Ong, A. D. (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 271–281.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pohl, S., & Carstensen, C. (2012). NEPS technical report – Scaling the data of the competence tests (NEPS Working Paper No. 14). National Educational Panel Study website: https://www.neps-data.de/Portals/0/Working%20Papers/WP_XIV.pdf.
  76. Ready, D. D., & Wright, D. L. (2011). Accuracy and inaccuracy in teachers’ perceptions of young children’s cognitive abilities: The role of child background and classroom context. American Educational Research Journal, 48(2), 335–360.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831210374874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rivas-Drake, D., Syed, M., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Markstrom, C., French, S., Schwartz, S: J.,  et al. (2014). Feeling good, happy, and proud: A meta-analysis of positive ethnic-racial affect and adjustment. Child Development, 85(1), 77–102.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ryder, A. G., Alden, L. E., & Paulhus, D. L. (2000). Is acculturation unidimensional or bidimensional? A head-to-head comparison in the prediction of personality, self-identity, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(1), 49–65.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.1.49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sabatier, C. (2008). Ethnic and national identity among second-generation immigrant adolescents in France: The role of social context and family. Journal of Adolescence, 31(2), 185–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.08.001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Salentin, K. (2007). Determinants of experience of discrimination in minorities in Germany. International Journal of Conflict and Violence (IJCV), 1(1), 32–50.  https://doi.org/10.4119/UNIBI/ijcv.19.Google Scholar
  82. Schachner, M. K., Noack, P., Van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Eckstein, K. (2016). Cultural diversity climate and psychological adjustment at school – Equality and inclusion versus cultural pluralism. Child Development, 87(4), 1175–1191.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schaafsma, J. (2011). Discrimination and subjective well‐being: The moderating roles of identification with the heritage group and the host majority group. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(6), 786–795.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schwartz, S. J., Montgomery, M. J., & Briones, E. (2006). The role of identity in acculturation among immigrant people: Theoretical propositions, empirical questions, and applied recommendations. Human Development, 49(1), 1–30.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000090300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Benet-Martinez, V., Meca, A., Zamboanga, B. L., et al. (2015). Longitudinal trajectories of bicultural identity integration in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with mental health and family functioning. International Journal of Psychology, 50(6), 440–450.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Skopek, J., Pink, S., & Bela, D. (2013). Starting cohort 4 - 9th grade (SC 4). SUF Version 1.1.0. Data Manual. (NEPS Research Data Paper). National Educational Panel Study website: https://www.neps-data.de/Portals/0/NEPS/Datenzentrum/Forschungsdaten/SC4/1-1-0/SC4_1-1-0_DataManual_en.pdf.
  87. Smith, T. B., & Silva, L. (2011). Ethnic identity and personal well-being of People of Color: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(1), 42–60.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Snellman, A., & Ekehammar, B. (2005). Ethnic hierarchies, ethnic prejudice, and social dominance orientation. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 15(2), 83–94.  https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stanat, P., & Christensen, G. (2006). Where immigrant students succeed – A comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  90. Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797–811.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.5.797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Steffensen, M., Joag-Dev, C., & Anderson, R. (1979). A cross-cultural perspective on reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 15(1), 10–29.  https://doi.org/10.2307/747429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  93. Titzmann, P. F., Silbereisen, R. K., Mesch, G. S., & Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2011). Migration-specific hassles among adolescent immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Germany and Israel. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(5), 777–794.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022110362756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. TNS Infratest Sozialforschung. (2012). SOEP 2009 – Erhebungsinstrumente 2009 (Welle 26) des Sozio-oekonomischen Panels [Survey instruments 2009 (wave 26) of the German Socio-Economic Panel] (SOEP Survey Papers 106). München, Germany: Infratest Sozialforschung. http://hdl.handle.net/10419/61568.Google Scholar
  95. Trickett, E. J., & Birman, D. (2005). Acculturation, school context, and school outcomes: adaptation of refugee adolescents from the Former Soviet Union. Psychology in the Schools, 42(1), 27–38.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tucci, I., Eisnecker, P., & Brücker, H. (2014). Diskriminierungserfahrungen und soziale Integration: Wie zufrieden sind Migranten mit ihrem Leben? [Experiences with discrimination and social integration: How satisfied are migrants with their life?] (No. 21.4/2014). IAB-Kurzbericht.Google Scholar
  97. Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Wong, J. J., Gonzales, N. A., & Dumka, L. E. (2012). Ethnic identity and gender as moderators of the association between discrimination and academic adjustment among Mexican-origin adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 35(4), 773–786.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.11.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vedder, P., & Virta, E. (2005). Language, ethnic identity, and the adaptation of Turkish immigrant youth in the Netherlands and Sweden. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(3), 317–337.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.05.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Verkuyten, M. (1995). Self-esteem, self-concept stability, and aspects of ethnic identity among minority and majority youth in the Netherlands. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24(2), 155–175.  10.1007/BF01537147.
  100. von Collani, G., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2003). Eine revidierte Fassung der deutschsprachigen Skala zum Selbstwertgefühl von Rosenberg [A revised German version of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 24(1), 3–7.  https://doi.org/10.1024/0170-1789.24.1.3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wald, A. (1943). Tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters when the number of observations is large. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, 54(3), 426–482.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1990256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Walsh, S. D., De Clercq, B., Molcho, M., Harel-Fisch, Y., Davison, C. M., Madsen, K. R., et al. (2016). The relationship between immigrant school composition, classmate support and involvement in physical fighting and bullying among adolescent immigrants and non-immigrants in 11 countries. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(1), 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0367-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ward, C. (1996). Acculturation. In D. Landis & R. S. Bhagat (Eds.), Handbook of intercultural training (pp. 124–147). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  104. Ward, C. (2001). The A, B, Cs of acculturation. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), The handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 411–445). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Ward, C. (2013). Probing identity, integration and adaptation: Big questions, little answers. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(4), 391–404.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2013.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ward, C., & Rana-Deuba, A. (1999). Acculturation and adaptation revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(4), 422–442.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022199030004003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Warm, T. A. (1989). Weighted likelihood estimation of ability in item response theory. Psychometrika, 54(3), 427–450.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Williams, R. L. (2000). A note on robust variance estimation for cluster-correlated data. Biometrics, 56(2), 645–646.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0006-341X.2000.00645.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wong, C. A., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2003). The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents’ school and socioemotional adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71(6), 1197–1232.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.7106012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yağmur, K., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2012). Acculturation and language orientations of Turkish immigrants in Australia, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43(7), 1110–1130.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022111420145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yip, T., Gee, G. C., & Takeuchi, D. T. (2008). Racial discrimination and psychological distress: The impact of ethnic identity and age among immigrant and United States-born Asian adults. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 787–800.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.787.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zick, A., Wagner, U., van Dick, R., & Petzel, T. (2001). Acculturation and prejudice in Germany: Majority and minority perspectives. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 541–557.  https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Berlin Institute for Integration and Migration Research (BIM) at Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Educational Quality Improvement (IQB)Berlin Institute for Integration and Migration Research (BIM) at Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Humboldt-Universität zu BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations