Explaining the Association between Early Adversity and Young Adults’ Diabetes Outcomes: Physiological, Psychological, and Behavioral Mechanisms

  • Kandauda A. S. Wickrama
  • Dayoung Bae
  • Catherine Walker O’Neal
Empirical Research

Abstract

Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults’ risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults’ diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults’ diabetes using a nationally representative sample of 13,286 adolescents (54% female) over a period of 13 years. The findings indicated that early adversity contributed to elevated BMI, depressive symptoms, and stress-related health behaviors. The impact of these linking mechanisms on hierarchical diabetes outcomes (i.e., prediabetes and diabetes) remained significant after taking their associations with each other into account, showing that these mechanisms operate concurrently. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection for risk factors of young adults’ diabetes in order to minimize their detrimental health effects.

Keywords

Young adults Diabetes Early adversity Health-risk mechanisms 

References

  1. Adkins, D. E., Wang, V., Dupre, M. E., Van den Oord, E. J., & Elder, G. H. (2009). Structure and stress: Trajectories of depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood. Social Forces, 88(1), 31–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Diabetes Association. (2014). Statistics about diabetes. http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/statistics/.
  3. American Heart Association. (2014). Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. https://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/.
  4. Atlantis, E., & Baker, M. (2008). Obesity effects on depression: Systematic review of epidemiological studies. International Journal of Obesity, 32(6), 881–891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Attar, B. K., Guerra, N. G., & Tolan, P. H. (1994). Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful life events and adjustments in urban elementary-school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23(4), 391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bae, D., Wickrama, K. A. S., & O’Neal, C. W. (2014). Social consequences of early socioeconomic adversity and youth BMI trajectories: Gender and race/ethnicity differences. Journal of Adolescence, 37(6), 883–892.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball, K., Crawford, D., & Warren, N. (2004). How feasible are healthy eating and physical activity for young women? Public Health Nutrition, 7(03), 433–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauman, L. J., Silver, E. J., & Stein, R. E. (2006). Cumulative social disadvantage and child health. Pediatrics, 117(4), 1321–1328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bellows-Riecken, K. H., & Rhodes, R. E. (2008). A birth of inactivity? A review of physical activity and parenthood. Preventive Medicine, 46(2), 99–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Biro, F. M., & Wien, M. (2010). Childhood obesity and adult morbidities. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(5), 1499S–1505S.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Boardman, J. D., Saint Onge, J. M., Rogers, R. G., & Denney, J. T. (2005). Race differentials in obesity: The impact of place. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(3), 229–243.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Brownstein, N., Kalsbeek, W. D., Tabor, J., Entzel, P., Daza, E., & Harris, K. M. (2011). Non-response in wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Chapel Hill: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina.Google Scholar
  13. Burdette, A. M., & Hill, T. D. (2008). An examination of processes linking perceived neighborhood disorder and obesity. Social Science & Medicine, 67(1), 38–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cahill, L. E., Pan, A., Chiuve, S. E., Sun, Q., Willett, W. C., Hu, F. B., & Rimm, E. B. (2014). Fried-food consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease: A prospective study in 2 cohorts of US women and men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.084129.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Christakis, N. A., & Fowler, J. H. (2007). The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(4), 370–379.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., & Martin, M. J. (2010). Socioeconomic status, family processes, and individual development. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 685–704.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65(2), 541–561.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cummins, S., & Macintyre, S. (2006). Food environments and obesity—neighbourhood or nation? International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(1), 100–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dall, T. M., Yang, W., Halder, P., Pang, B., Massoudi, M., & Wintfeld, N., et al. (2014). The economic burden of elevated blood glucose levels in 2012: Diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus, and prediabetes. Diabetes Care, 37(12), 3172–3179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. De Jonge, P., Alonso, J., Stein, D. J., Kiejna, A., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., & Viana, M. C., et al. (2014). Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and diabetes mellitus: A role for impulse control disorders and depression. Diabetologia, 57(4), 699–709.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Dyer, A. R., Stamler, J., Garside, D. B., & Greenland, P. (2004). Long-term consequences of body mass index for cardiovascular mortality: The Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study. Annals of Epidemiology, 14(2), 101–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ellaway, A., Anderson, A., & Macintyre, S. (1997). Does area of residence affect body size and shape?. International Journal of Obesity, 21(4), 304–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Enders, C. K., & Bandalos, D. L. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(3), 430–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Evans, G. W., & Kim, P. (2010). Multiple risk exposure as a potential explanatory mechanism for the socioeconomic status–health gradient. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186(1), 174–189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fagundes, C. P., Diamond, L. M., & Allen, K. P. (2012). Adolescent attachment insecurity and parasympathetic functioning predict future loss adjustment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(6), 821–832.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Festa, A., D’Agostino, Jr, R., Williams, K., Karter, A. J., Mayer-Davis, E. J., Tracy, R. P., & Haffner, S. M. (2001). The relation of body fat mass and distribution to markers of chronic inflammation. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, 25, 1407–1415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fitzgibbon, M. L., Spring, B., Avellone, M. E., Blackman, L. R., Pingitore, R., & Stolley, M. R. (1998). Correlates of binge eating in Hispanic, Black, and White women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 24(1), 43–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Geronimus, A. T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., & Bound, J. (2006). “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 96(5), 826–833.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Gillman, M. W. (2004). A life course approach to obesity. In D. Kuh, & Y. B. Shlomo (Eds.), A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology (pp. 189–217). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Goodman, E., Dolan, L. M., Morrison, J. A., & Daniels, S. R. (2005). Factor analysis of clustered cardiovascular risks in adolescence obesity is the predominant correlate of risk among youth. Circulation, 111(15), 1970–1977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gordon-Larsen, P., Nelson, M. C., & Popkin, B. M. (2004). Longitudinal physical activity and sedentary behavior trends: Adolescence to adulthood. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(4), 277–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Guo, G., North, K. E., Gorden‐Larsen, P., Bulik, C. M., & Choi, S. (2007). Body mass, DRD4, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and family socioeconomic status: The add health study. Obesity, 15(5), 1199–1206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Helmrich, S. P., Ragland, D. R., Leung, R. W., & Paffenbarger, Jr, R. S. (1991). Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine, 325(3), 147–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hu, F. B., Manson, J. E., Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G., Liu, S., Solomon, C. G., & Willett, W. C. (2001). Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 345(11), 790–797.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kipke, M. D., Iverson, E., Moore, D., Booker, C., Ruelas, V., Peters, A. L., & Kaufman, F. (2007). Food and park environments: neighborhood-level risks for childhood obesity in east Los Angeles. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(4), 325–333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Konttinen, H., Männistö, S., Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, S., Silventoinen, K., & Haukkala, A. (2010). Emotional eating, depressive symptoms and self-reported food consumption. A population-based study. Appetite, 54(3), 473–479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kriska, A., Delahanty, L., Edelstein, S., Amodei, N., Chadwick, J., & Copeland, K., et al. (2013). Sedentary behavior and physical activity in youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes. Pediatrics, 131(3), e850–e856.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Kubzansky, L. D., & Kawachi, I. (2000). Going to the heart of the matter: Do negative emotions cause coronary heart disease?. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48(4), 323–337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Lantz, P. M., House, J. S., Mero, R. P., & Williams, D. R. (2005). Stress, life events, and socioeconomic disparities in health: Results from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(3), 274–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lawlor, D. A., & Chaturvedi, N. (2006). Treatment and prevention of obesity—are there critical periods for intervention? International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(1), 3–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee, T. K., Wickrama, K. A. S., & Simons, L. G. (2013). Chronic family economic hardship, family processes, and progression of mental and physical health symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(6), 821–836.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Levine, J. A. (2011). Poverty and obesity in the US. Diabetes, 60(11), 2667–2668.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., Klein, D. N., & Seeley, J. R. (1999). Natural course of adolescent major depressive disorder: I. Continuity into young adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(1), 56–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liang, K.-Y., & Zeger, S. L. (1986). Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika, 73, 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lloyd, D. A., & Turner, R. J. (2008). Cumulative lifetime adversities and alcohol dependence in adolescence and young adulthood. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 93(3), 217–226.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Macht, M. (2008). How emotions affect eating: A five-way model. Appetite, 50(1), 1–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Macht, M., Haupt, C., & Ellgring, H. (2005). The perceived function of eating is changed during examination stress: A field study. Eating Behaviors, 6(2), 109–112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Masheb, R. M., & Grilo, C. M. (2006). Emotional overeating and its associations with eating disorder psychopathology among overweight patients with binge eating disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39(2), 141–146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Matthews, K. A., Gallo, L. C., & Taylor, S. E. (2010). Are psychosocial factors mediators of socioeconomic status and health connections?. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1186(1), 146–173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Maxwell, M. A., & Cole, D. A. (2009). Weight change and appetite disturbance as symptoms of adolescent depression: Toward an integrative biopsychosocial model. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(3), 260–273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. McEwen, B. S. (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease: Allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840(1), 33–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Mikolajczyk, R. T., El Ansari, W., & Maxwell, A. E. (2009). Food consumption frequency and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among students in three European countries. Nutrition Journal, 8(1), 31–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Mokdad, A. H., Bowman, B. A., Ford, E. S., Vinicor, F., Marks, J. S., & Koplan, J. P. (2001). The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. Jama, 286(10), 1195–1200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Muthén, B. O. (2011). Applications of causally defined direct and indirect effects in mediation analysis using SEM in Mplus. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://www.statmodel.com/download/causalmediation.pdf
  55. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus: The comprehensive modeling program for applied researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén and Muthén. User’s guide 5.Google Scholar
  56. Nabkasorn, C., Miyai, N., Sootmongkol, A., Junprasert, S., Yamamoto, H., Arita, M., & Miyashita, K. (2006). Effects of physical exercise on depression, neuroendocrine stress hormones and physiological fitness in adolescent females with depressive symptoms. The European Journal of Public Health, 16(2), 179–184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Nakhla, M., Daneman, D., To, T., Paradis, G., & Guttmann, A. (2009). Transition to adult care for youths with diabetes mellitus: Findings from a Universal Health Care System. Pediatrics, 124(6), e1134–e1141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Nazmi, A., Gonzalez, D. C., Oliveira, I. O., Horta, B. L., Gigante, D. P., & Victora, C. G. (2009). Life course weight gain and C‐reactive protein levels in young adults: Findings from a Brazilian birth cohort. American Journal of Human Biology, 21(2), 192–199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Packard, C. J., Bezlyak, V., McLean, J. S., Batty, G. D., Ford, I., & Burns, H., et al. (2011). Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: A cross-sectional, population-based study. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 42–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Pearlin, L. I. (1989). The sociological study of stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30(3), 241–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Prawitz, A. D., Kalkowski, J. C., & Cohart, J. (2013). Responses to economic pressure by low-income families: Financial distress and hopefulness. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 34(1), 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Repetti, R. L., Robles, T. F., & Reynolds, B. (2011). Allostatic processes in the family. Development and Psychopathology, 23(03), 921–938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Roberts, R. E., Deleger, S., Strawbridge, W. J., & Kaplan, G. A. (2003). Prospective association between obesity and depression: Evidence from the Alameda county study. International Journal of Obesity, 27(4), 514–521.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Rawana, J. S., Morgan, A. S., Nguyen, H., & Craig, S. G. (2010). The relation between eating- and weight-related disturbances and depression in adolescence: A review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13(3), 213–230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Saydah, S., Bullard, K. M., Imperatore, G., Geiss, L., & Gregg, E. W. (2013). Cardiometabolic risk factors among US adolescents and young adults and risk of early mortality. Pediatrics, 131(3), e679–686.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Seeman, T., Gruenewald, T., Karlamangla, A., Sidney, S., Liu, K., McEwen, B., & Schwartz, J. (2010). Modeling multisystem biological risk in young adults: The coronary artery risk development in young adults study. American Journal of Human Biology, 22(4), 463–472.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Shin, S. H., & Miller, D. P. (2012). A longitudinal examination of childhood maltreatment and adolescent obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36(2), 84–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sigal, R. J., Kenny, G. P., Wasserman, D. H., Castaneda-Sceppa, C., & White, R. D. (2006). Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 29(6), 1433–1438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Sobal, J., & Stunkard, A. J. (1989). Socioeconomic status and obesity: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 105(2), 260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Stringhini, S., Batty, G. D., Bovet, P., Shipley, M. J., Marmot, M. G., & Kumari, M., et al. (2013). Association of life course socioeconomic status with chronic inflammation and type 2 diabetes risk: The Whitehall II prospective cohort study. PLoS Med, 10(7), e1001479.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Sucoff, C. A., & Upchurch, D. M. (1998). Neighborhood context and the risk of childbearing among metropolitan-area black adolescents. American Sociological Review, 63, 571–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wadsworth, M., Rienks, S. (2012), Stress as a mechanism of poverty’s ill effects on children: Making a case for family strengthening interventions that counteract poverty-related stress. http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/newsletter/2012/07/index.aspx.
  74. Wang, M., Yi, Y., Roebothan, B., Colbourne, J., Maddalena, V., Wang, P. P., & Sun, G. (2016). Body Mass index trajectories among middle-aged and elderly Canadians and associated health outcomes. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. doi:10.1155/2016/7014857.Google Scholar
  75. Wen, M., & Maloney, T. N. (2011). Latino residential isolation and the risk of obesity in Utah: The role of neighborhood socioeconomic, built-environmental, and subcultural context. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13(6), 1134–1141.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Wickrama, K. A. S., Conger, R. D., Lorenz, F. O., & Jung, T. (2008). Family antecedents and consequences of trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood: A life course investigation. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49(4), 468–483.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Wickrama, K. A. S., Conger, R. D., Wallace, L. E., & Elder, Jr, G. H. (1999). The intergenerational transmission of health-risk behaviors: Adolescent lifestyles and gender moderating effects. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40(3), 258–272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Wickrama, K. A. S., Lee, T. K., O’Neal, C. W., & Kwon, J. A. (2015). Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults’ physical health risk. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(5), 1109–1124.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Wickrama, K. A. S., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., & Elder, Jr, G. H. (1997). Marital quality and physical illness: A latent growth curve analysis. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wickrama, K. A. S., O’Neal, C. W., & Lee, T. K. (2016). The health impact of upward mobility: Does socioeconomic attainment make youth more vulnerable to stressful circumstances?. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(2), 271–285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Wilson, P. W., D’Agostino, R. B., Sullivan, L., Parise, H., & Kannel, W. B. (2002). Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: The Framingham experience. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(16), 1867–1872.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Family ScienceThe University of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Center for Family ResearchThe University of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  3. 3.Department of Human Development and Family ScienceThe University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations