Associations between Cultural Stressors, Cultural Values, and Latina/o College Students’ Mental Health
- 2.6k Downloads
Latina/o college students experience cultural stressors that negatively impact their mental health, which places them at risk for academic problems. We explored whether cultural values buffer the negative effect of cultural stressors on mental health symptoms in a sample of 198 Latina/o college students (70 % female; 43 % first generation college students). Bivariate results revealed significant positive associations between cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stress, discrimination) and mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depressive, psychological stress), and negative associations between cultural values of familismo, respeto, and religiosity and mental health symptoms. Several cultural values moderated the influence of cultural stressors on mental health symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of helping Latina/o college students remain connected to their families and cultural values as a way of promoting their mental health.
KeywordsLatina/o young adults Mental health Cultural values Cultural stressors
We would like to acknowledge our study participants for their time and valued contributions to this research. We would like to thank the college students who participated in this study by volunteering their time and responding to the confidential survey. We are also grateful to the other graduate students who helped design the study and collect data (i.e., Carla Shaffer, Michelle Pope).
This study was supported by a grant awarded to Dr. Corona from the Institute of Women’s Health at Virginia Commonwealth University. Dr. V.M. Rodríguez’s contribution was further supported by the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Support Grant/Core Grant (P30 CA008748) and a training grant (T32 CA009461).
We acknowledge that this manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration, that it has not been published previously (partly or in full), no data have been fabricated or manipulated to support our conclusions, plagiarism has been avoided, consent to submit the manuscript was received from all co-authors, and that authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.
RC conceived of the study, participated in its design (including participant recruitment and data collection), consulted on data analysis and interpretation, and coordinated the drafting of the manuscript, including taking the lead on the introduction and methods, and reviewing the results and discussion sections. VMR participated in the design of the study (including participant recruitment and data collection), performed the statistical analysis, took the lead in writing up the results, and contributed to the writing of all sections of the manuscript. SM consulted on data analysis, took the lead in interpreting the data in the discussion section, and reviewed all other sections. AR, EV, and VF conceived of the study questions, and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the depression anxiety stress scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 176–181. doi: 10.1037/1040-35188.8.131.52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Arkin, M. (2015). The relationship between community violence exposure and psychological well-being among Latino adolescents (Doctoral dissertation) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
- Benet-Martinez, V. (2003). The riverside acculturation stress inventory (RASI): Development and psychometric properties. Riverside, CA: University of California at Riverside.Google Scholar
- Berkel, C., Knight, G. P., Zeiders, K. H., Tein, J. Y., Roosa, M. W., Gonzales, N. A., & Saenz, D. (2010). Discrimination and adjustment for Mexican American adolescents: A prospective examination of the benefits of culturally related values. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20, 893–915. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00668.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bernal, G., Bonilla, J., & Bellido, C. (1995). Ecological validity and cultural sensitivity for outcome research: Issues for the cultural adaptation and development of psychosocial treatments with Hispanics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 67–82. doi: 10.1007/BF01447045.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brondolo, E., Kelly, K.P., Coakley, V., Gordon, T., Thompson, S., Levy, E., Cassells, A.,Tobin, J.N., Sweeney, M., & Contrada, R.J. (2005) The perceived ethnic discrimination questionnaire: Development and preliminary validation of a community version1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(2), 335–365.Google Scholar
- Camacho, Á., Gonzalez, P., Buelna, C., Emory, K. T., Talavera, G. A., & Castañeda, S. F., et al. (2015). Anxious-depression among Hispanic/Latinos from different backgrounds: Results from the hispanic community health study/study of latinos (HCHS/SOL). Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 1669–1677. doi: 10.1007/s00127-015-1120-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cauce, A. M., & Domenech-Rodriguez, M. (2002). Latino families: Myths and realities. In J. M. Contreras, K. A. Kerns, & A. M. Neal-Barnett (Eds.), Latino Children and Families in the United States (pp. 5–25). Westport, CT: Praeger Press.Google Scholar
- Chang, E. C., Elizabeth, A. Y., Yu, T., Kahle, E. R., Hernandez, V., & Kim, J. M., et al. (2016). Ethnic variables and negative life events as predictors of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in Latino college students on the centrality of receptivo a los demás. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 38, 206–221. doi: 10.1177/0739986316641418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chavira, D. A., Golinelli, D., Sherbourne, C., Stein, M. B., Sullivan, G., & Bystritsky, A., et al. (2014). Treatment engagement and response to CBT among Latinos with anxiety disorders in primary care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82, 392–403. doi: 10.1037/a0036365.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Crockett, L. J., Iturbide, M. I., Torres Stone, R. A., McGinley, M., Raffaelli, M., & Carlo, G. (2007). Acculturative stress, social support, and coping: Relations to psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 347–355. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.13.4.347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Delgado, M. Y., Updegraff, K. A., Roosa, M. W., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2011). Discrimination and Mexican-origin adolescents’ adjustment: The moderating roles of adolescents’, mothers’, and fathers’ cultural orientations and values. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 125–139. doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9467-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deroma, V. M., Leach, J. B., & Leverett, J. P. (2009). The relationship between depression and college academic performance. College Student Journal, 43, 325–334.Google Scholar
- Gloria, A. M., & Castellanos, J. (2003). Latino/a and African American students at predominantly White institutions: A psychosociocultural perspective of educational interactions and academic persistence. In J. Castellanos, & L. Jones (Eds.), The majority in the minority: Retaining Latina/o faculty, administrators and students (pp. 71–92). Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
- Knight, G. P., Gonzalez, N. A., Saenz, D. S., Bonds, D. D., Germán, M., Deardorff, J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2010). The Mexican American cultural values scales for adolescents and adults. Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, 444–481. doi: 10.1177/0272431609338178.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Krogstad, J. M. (2016). Five facts about Latinos and education. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/07/28/5-facts-about-latinos-and-education/.
- Lorenzo-Blanco, E. I., Unger, J. B., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Ritt-Olson, A., & Soto, D. (2012). Acculturation, enculturation, and symptoms of depression in Hispanic youth: The roles of gender, Hispanic cultural values, and family functioning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 1350–1365. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9774-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Miranda, J., Azocar, F., Organista, K.C., Dwyer, E., Areane, P. (2003) Treatment of depression among impoverished primary care patients from ethnic minority groups. Psychiatric Services, 54 (2):219–225.Google Scholar
- Morcillo, C., Duarte, C. S., Shen, S., Blanco, C., Canino, G., & Bird, H. R. (2011). Parental familism and antisocial behaviors: Development, gender, and potential mechanisms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 471–479. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.01.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Petts, R. J., & Jolliff, A. (2008). Religion and adolescent depression: The impact of race and gender. Review of Religious Research, 49, 395–414.Google Scholar
- Piña-Watson, B., Castillo, L. G., Ojeda, L., & Rodriguez, K. M. (2013). Parent conflict as a mediator between marianismo beliefs and depressive symptoms for Mexican American college women. Journal of American College Health, 61, 491–496. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2013.838567.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Strunin, L., Díaz-Martínez, A., Díaz-Martínez, L. R., Kuranz, S., Hernández-Ávila, C. A., García-Bernabé, C. C., & Fernández-Varela, H. (2015). Alcohol use among Mexican youths: Is familismo protective for moderate drinking?. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 309–316. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9837-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Gonzales-Backen, M. A. (2011). Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ stressors and psychosocial functioning: Examining ethnic identity affirmation and familism as moderators. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 140–157. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9511-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Updegraff, K. A., Umaña‐Taylor, A. J., McHale, S. M., Wheeler, L. A., & Perez‐Brena, N. J. (2012). Mexican‐origin youth’s cultural orientations and adjustment: Changes from early to late adolescence. Child Development, 83, 1655–1671. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01800.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Yonker, J. E., Schnabelrauch, C. A., & DeHaan, L. G. (2012). The relationship between spirituality and religiosity on psychological outcomes in adolescents and emerging adults: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 299–314. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.08.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zeiders, K. H., Updegraff, K. A., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Wheeler, L. A., Perez-Brena, N. J., & Rodríguez, S. A. (2013). Mexican-origin youths’ trajectories of depressive symptoms: The role of familism values. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53, 648–654. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.06.008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar