Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 45, Issue 11, pp 2292–2306 | Cite as

Participation in Organized Activities Protects Against Adolescents’ Risky Substance Use, Even Beyond Development in Conscientiousness

  • Kira O. McCabe
  • Kathryn L. Modecki
  • Bonnie L. Barber
Empirical Research


Adolescents are at a significant risk for binge drinking and illicit drug use. One way to protect against these behaviors is through participation in extracurricular activities. However, there is a debate about whether highly conscientious adolescents are more likely to participate in activities, which raises the concern of a confound. To disentangle these relationships, we tested the latent trajectories of substance use and personality across 3 years, with participation in activities and sports as time-varying predictors. We surveyed 687 adolescents (55 % female, 85.4 % Caucasian) in Western Australia schools across 3 years. At Time 1, the students were in Year 10 1 (mean age 15 years). The results showed that participation in activities and conscientiousness are related, but each uniquely predicts slower growth in substance use. Across waves, participation in activities predicted less risky substance use a year later, over and above conscientiousness development. These results suggest that there may be unique benefits of participation in activities that protect against risky substance use.


Binge drinking Substance use Risk behavior Extracurricular activities Conscientiousness Personality development 



We would like to thank the high school principals, their staff, and the students who participated in the Youth Activity Participation Survey of Western Australia. We are grateful to Helen Davis for help in survey development, particularly in the selection of the personality items. We also would like to thank Bree Abbott and Corey Blomfield Neira for their intellectual input and vital support in establishing the YAPS study, and everyone else in the YAPS-WA team for their hard work over the years.


The Youth Activity Participation Study of Western Australia has been funded by Grants under Australian Research Council’s Discovery Projects funding scheme: DP0774125 and DP1095791 to Bonnie Barber and Jacquelynne Eccles, and DP130104670 to Bonnie Barber, Kathryn Modecki, and Jacquelynne Eccles. Portions of this research also were funded by a grant from the Australian Institute of Criminology through the Criminology Research Grants Program to Kathryn Modecki, Bonnie Barber, and Wayne Osgood. The views expressed are the responsibility of the authors and are not necessarily those of the AIC.

Authors’ Contributions

K.O.M. conceived of the study, participated in the coordination of the study, performed the statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript. K.L.M. also participated in the conception of the study, consulted on data analysis and interpretation of results, and helped to draft the manuscript. B.B. conceived of the longitudinal project, participated in the design of the study, interpretation of the data, and writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Conflicts of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Standards

All YAPS-WA personnel acted in compliance with the approved ethical standards and procedures.

Ethical Approval

This study was approved by the Murdoch University Human Research Ethics Committee and Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee. This research was also approved by the Western Australian Department of Education and the Catholic Education Office to conduct research at the schools.

Informed Consent

We received informed consent from both the parents and the students prior to participation.


  1. Allen, M. S., Greenlees, I., & Jones, M. (2011). An investigation of the five-factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(8), 841–850. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.565064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, A. L., & Hughes, L. A. (2009). Exposure to situations conducive to delinquent behavior: The effects of time use, income, and transportation. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 46, 5–34. doi: 10.1177/0022427808326587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA). (2008). My school technical paper. Sydney, Australia: ACARA. Retrieved from
  4. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2014). 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey report. Canberra: AIHW.Google Scholar
  5. Barber, B. L., Abbott, B. D., Blomfield Neira, C. J., & Eccles, J. S. (2014). Meaningful activity participation and positive youth development. In M. Furlong, R. Gilman, & E. S. Huebner (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in the schools (2nd ed., pp. 227–244). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Barber, B. L., Eccles, J. S., & Stone, M. R. (2001). Whatever happened to the jock, the brain, and the princess? Young adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16(5), 429–455. doi: 10.1177/0743558401165002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bleidorn, W. (2012). Hitting the road to adulthood short-term personality development during a major life transition. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(12), 1594–1608. doi: 10.1177/0146167212456707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blomfield, C. J., & Barber, B. L. (2010). Australian adolescents’ extracurricular activity participation and positive development: Is the relationship mediated by peer attributes? Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 10, 114–128.Google Scholar
  9. Blomfield, C. J., & Barber, B. L. (2011). Developmental experiences during extracurricular activities and Australian adolescents’ self-concept: Particularly important for youth from disadvantaged schools. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 582–594. doi: 10.1007/s10964-010-9563-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bogg, T., & Roberts, B. W. (2004). Conscientiousness and health-related behaviors: A meta-analysis of the leading behavioral contributors to mortality. Psychological Bulletin, 130(6), 887–919. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.130.6.887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bogg, T., & Roberts, B. W. (2013). The case for conscientiousness: Evidence and implications for a personality trait marker of health and longevity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45(3), 278–288. doi: 10.1007/s12160-012-9454-6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, S. A., McGue, M., Maggs, J., Schulenberg, J., Hingson, R., Swartzwelder, S., et al. (2008). A developmental perspective on alcohol and youths 16–20 years of age. Pediatrics, 121(Supplement 4), S290–S310. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2243D.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–484. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States 2013. Atlanta, GA: CDC.Google Scholar
  15. Chassin, L., Dmitrieva, J., Modecki, K., Steinberg, L., Cauffman, E., Piquero, A. R., et al. (2010). Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24(1), 48. doi: 10.1037/a0017692.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chassin, L., Flora, D. B., & King, K. M. (2004). Trajectories of alcohol and drug use and dependence from adolescence to adulthood: The effects of familial alcoholism and personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(4), 483–498. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.113.4.483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Conner, M., Grogan, S., Fry, G., Gough, B., & Higgins, A. R. (2009). Direct, mediated and moderated impacts of personality variables on smoking initiation in adolescents. Psychology and Health, 24(9), 1085–1104. doi: 10.1080/08870440802239192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  19. Dawes, N. P., Modecki, K. L., Gonzales, N., Dumka, L., & Millsap, R. (2015). Mexican-origin youth participation in extracurricular activities: Predicting trajectories of involvement from 7th to 12th Grade. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(11), 2172–2188. doi: 10.1007/s10964-015-0284-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Fruyt, F., Bartels, M., Van Leeuwen, K. G., De Clercq, B., Decuyper, M., & Mervielde, I. (2006). Five types of personality continuity in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(3), 538. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.91.3.538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dubas, J. S., Graber, J. A., & Petersen, A. C. (1991). A longitudinal investigation of adolescents’ changing perceptions of pubertal timing. Developmental Psychology, 27(4), 580. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.27.4.580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(3–4), 294–309. doi: 10.1007/s10464-010-9300-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band what kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(1), 10–43. doi: 10.1177/0743558499141003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fauth, R. C., Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2007). Does the neighborhood context alter the link between youth’s after-school time activities and developmental outcomes? A multilevel analysis. Developmental Psychology, 43(3), 760–777. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.3.760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Feldman, A. F., & Matjasko, J. L. (2005). The role of school-based extracurricular activities in adolescent development: A comprehensive review and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 75(2), 159–210. doi: 10.3102/00346543075002159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Feldman, A. F., & Matjasko, J. L. (2007). Profiles and portfolios of adolescent school-based extracurricular activity participation. Journal of Adolescence, 30(2), 313–332. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.03.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Developmental benefits of extracurricular involvement: Do peer characteristics mediate the link between activities and youth outcomes? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(6), 507–520. doi: 10.1007/s10964-005-8933-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2008). Participation in extracurricular activities in the middle school years: Are there developmental benefits for African American and European American youth? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(9), 1029–1043. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9309-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guerra, N., Modecki, K. L., & Cunningham, W. (2014). Developing social-emotional skills for the labor market: The PRACTICE model (Working Paper No. 7123). Retrieved from World Bank Group website:
  30. Hagger-Johnson, G., Bell, S., Britton, A., Cable, N., Conner, M., O’Connor, D. B., et al. (2013). Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in a representative sample of English school pupils: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Preventive Medicine, 56(5), 304–308. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.02.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hampson, S. E., Goldberg, L. R., Vogt, T. M., & Dubanoski, J. P. (2007). Mechanisms by which childhood personality traits influence adult health status: Educational attainment and healthy behaviors. Health Psychology, 26(1), 121–125. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.26.1.121.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hogan, J., & Holland, B. (2003). Using theory to evaluate personality and job-performance relations: A socioanalytic perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 100–112. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jackson, J. J., Wood, D., Bogg, T., Walton, K. E., Harms, P. D., & Roberts, B. W. (2010). What do conscientious people do? Development and validation of the Behavioral Indicators of Conscientiousness (BIC). Journal of Research in Personality, 44(4), 501–511. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2010.06.005.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jensen-Campbell, L. A., & Malcolm, K. T. (2007). The importance of conscientiousness in adolescent interpersonal relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(3), 368–383. doi: 10.1177/0146167206296104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kenny, D. A., Kaniskan, B., & McCoach, D. B. (2015). The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociological Methods & Research, 44(3), 486–507. doi: 10.1177/0049124114543236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kern, M. L., & Friedman, H. S. (2008). Do conscientious individuals live longer? A quantitative review. Health Psychology, 27(5), 505–512. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.27.5.505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klimstra, T. A., Hale, W. W, I. I. I., Raaijmakers, Q. A., Branje, S. J., & Meeus, W. H. (2009). Maturation of personality in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 898–912. doi: 10.1037/a0014746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Klimstra, T. A., Luyckx, K., Hale, I. W., & Goossens, L. (2014). Personality and externalizing behavior in the transition to young adulthood: the additive value of personality facets. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(8), 1319–1333. doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0827-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Littlefield, A. K., Sher, K. J., & Wood, P. K. (2010). A personality-based description of maturing out of alcohol problems: Extension with a five-factor model and robustness to modeling challenges. Addictive Behaviors, 35(11), 948–954. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.008.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lodi-Smith, J., & Roberts, B. W. (2007). Social investment and personality: A meta-analysis of the relationship of personality traits to investment in work, family, religion, and volunteerism. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11(1), 68–86. doi: 10.1177/1088868306294590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lorente, F. O., Souville, M., Griffet, J., & Grélot, L. (2004). Participation in sports and alcohol consumption among French adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 29(5), 941–946. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Loukas, A., Krull, J. L., Chassin, L., & Carle, A. C. (2000). The relation of personality to alcohol abuse/dependence in a high-risk sample. Journal of Personality, 68(6), 1153–1175. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.00130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lüdtke, O., Trautwein, U., & Husemann, N. (2009). Goal and personality trait development in a transitional period: Assessing change and stability in personality development. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(4), 428–441. doi: 10.1177/0146167208329215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mahoney, J. L. (2000). School extracurricular activity participation as a moderator in the development of antisocial patterns. Child Development, 71, 502–516. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Lord, H. (2005). Organized activities as developmental contexts for children and adolescents. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 3–22). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  47. Mahoney, J. L., Stattin, H., & Magnusson, D. (2001). Youth recreation centre participation and criminal offending: A 20-year longitudinal study of Swedish boys. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25(6), 509–520. doi: 10.1080/01650250042000456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Malinauskas, R., Dumciene, A., Mamkus, G., & Venckunas, T. (2014). Personality traits and exercise capacity in male athletes and non-athletes. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 118, 145–161. doi: 10.2466/29.25.PMS.118k13w1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Markey, C. N., Markey, P. M., & Tinsley, B. J. (2003). Personality, puberty, and preadolescent girls’ risky behaviors: Examining the predictive value of the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(5), 405–419. doi: 10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00014-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McDonough, M. H., Jose, P. E., & Stuart, J. (2015). Bi-directional effects of peer relationships and adolescent substance use: A longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. doi:  10.1007/s10964-015-0355-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Merritt, C. J., & Tharp, I. J. (2013). Personality, self-efficacy and risk-taking in parkour (free-running). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(5), 608–611. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Miller, J. (2013). Individual offending, routine activities, and activity settings: Revisiting the routine activity theory of general deviance. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(3), 390–416. doi: 10.1177/0022427811432641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Modecki, K. L. (2009). “It’s a rush”: Psychosocial content of antisocial decision making. Law and Human Behavior, 33(3), 183–193. doi: 10.1007/s10979-008-9150-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Modecki, K. L., Barber, B. L., & Eccles, J. S. (2014). Binge drinking trajectories across adolescence: For early maturing youth, extra-curricular activities are protective. Journal of Adolescent Health, 54, 61–66. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Modecki, K. L., Barber, B. L., & Vernon, L. (2013). Mapping developmental precursors of cyber-aggression: Trajectories of risk predict perpetration and vicitimization. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 651–661. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9887-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Monahan, K. C., Rhew, I. C., Hawkins, J. D., & Brown, E. C. (2014). Adolescent pathways to co-occurring problem behavior: The effects of peer delinquency and peer substance use. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(4), 630–645. doi: 10.1111/jora.12053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide, Seventh Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  58. National Center for Health Statistics. (2015). Health, United States, 2014: With special feature on adults aged 55–64. Hyattsville, MD: CDC.Google Scholar
  59. Noftle, E. E., & Robins, R. W. (2007). Personality predictors of academic outcomes: Big Five correlates of GPA and SAT scores. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(1), 116–130. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.1.116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. O’Connor, M. C., & Paunonen, S. V. (2007). Big Five personality predictors of post-secondary academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(5), 971–990. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.03.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Odgers, C. L., Caspi, A., Nagin, D. S., Piquero, A. R., Slutske, W. S., Milne, B. J., et al. (2008). Is it important to prevent early exposure to drugs and alcohol among adolescents? Psychological Science, 19(10), 1037–1044. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.03.017.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Osgood, D. W., Wilson, J. K., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (1996). Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. American Sociological Review, 61, 635–655. doi: 10.2307/2096397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ozer, D. J., & Benet-Martínez, V. (2006). Personality and the prediction of consequential outcomes. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 401–421. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Park, A., Sher, K. J., Wood, P. K., & Krull, J. L. (2009). Dual mechanisms underlying accentuation of risky drinking via fraternity/sorority affiliation: The role of personality, peer norms, and alcohol availability. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(2), 241–255. doi: 10.1037/a0015126.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Perry-Burney, G. D., & Takyi, B. K. (2002). Self esteem, academic achievement, and moral development among adolescent girls. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 5(2), 15–27. doi: 10.1300/J137v05n02_02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pullmann, H., Raudsepp, L., & Allik, J. (2006). Stability and change in adolescents personality: A longitudinal study. European Journal of Personality, 20(6), 447–459. doi: 10.1002/per.611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rebellon, C. J., & Modecki, K. L. (2014). Accounting for projection bias in models of delinquent peer influence: The utility and limits of latent variable approaches. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 30(2), 163–186. doi: 10.1007/s10940-013-9199-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Roberts, B. W., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2003). Work experiences and personality development in young adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 582–593. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.3.582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 1–25. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rubin, R. S., Bommer, W. H., & Baldwin, T. T. (2002). Using extracurricular activity as an indicator of interpersonal skill: Prudent evaluation or recruiting malpractice? Human Resource Management, 41(4), 441–454. doi: 10.1002/hrm.10053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Slagt, M., Dubas, J. S., Deković, M., Haselager, G. J., & Aken, M. A. (2015). Longitudinal associations between delinquent behavior of friends and delinquent behavior of adolescents: Moderation by adolescent personality traits. European Journal of Personality, 29, 468–477. doi: 10.1002/per.2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tok, S. (2011). The big five personality traits and risky sport participation. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39(8), 1105–1111. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2011.39.8.1105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tucker, J. S., Orlando, M., & Ellickson, P. L. (2003). Patterns and correlates of binge drinking trajectories from early adolescence to young adulthood. Health Psychology, 22(1), 79–87. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.22.1.79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Westling, E., Andrews, J. A., Hampson, S. E., & Peterson, M. (2008). Pubertal timing and substance use: The effects of gender, parental monitoring and deviant peers. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42(6), 555–563. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.11.002.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wichstrom, T., & Wichstrom, L. (2008). Does sports participation during adolescence prevent later alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use? Addiction, 104(1), 138–149. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02422.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Williamson, A. A., Modecki, K. L., & Guerra, N. G. (2015). Evidence-based programming in diverse settings: High school. In J. Durlak, T. Gullotta, C. Domitrovich, P. Goren, & R. Weissberg (Eds.), The handbook of social and emotional learning. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kira O. McCabe
    • 1
  • Kathryn L. Modecki
    • 1
  • Bonnie L. Barber
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Applied Psychology, Menzies Health Institute QueenslandGriffith UniversitySouthportAustralia

Personalised recommendations