Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Parental Psychological Control and Relational Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

Abstract

When studying factors that may heighten risk for relational aggression in youth, it is important to consider characteristics of both the individual and their environment. This research examined the associations between parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression in emerging adults in college. Given that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation may underlie differences between reactive and proactive aggression and has been shown to moderate the effects of parenting on youth development, the moderating role of SNS reactivity [indexed by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR)] was also examined. Emerging adults (N = 180; 77.2 % female) self-reported on perceptions of parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression. SCLR was assessed in response to an interpersonal laboratory challenge task. Parental psychological control was positively associated with reactive relational aggression only for emerging adults who exhibited high SCLR. Parental psychological control was positively associated with proactive relational aggression only among emerging adults who showed low SCLR. This study extends previous research on parenting and aggression and suggests that parental psychological control is differentially associated with reactive versus proactive relational aggression, depending on emerging adults’ SCLR to interpersonal stress.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Abaied, J. L. (2015). Skin conductance level reactivity as a moderator of the link between parent depressive symptoms and psychosocial adjustment in emerging adults. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. doi:10.1177/0265407515583170.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Abaied, J. L., & Emond, C. (2013). Parent psychological control and responses to interpersonal stress in emerging adulthood: Moderating effects of behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation. Emerging Adulthood, 1(4), 258–270. doi:10.1177/2167696813485737.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Abaied, J. L., Wagner, C., & Sanders, W. (2014). Parent socialization of coping in emerging adulthood: Moderation by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35(4), 357–369. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2014.06.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Albrecht, A. K., Galambos, N. L., & Jansson, S. M. (2007). Adolescents’ internalizing and aggressive behaviors and perceptions of parents’ psychological control: A panel study examining direction of effects. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 673–684.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Arnett, J. J. (2015). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Arnett, J. J., & Schwab, J. (2013). The Clark University poll of parents of emerging adults. Retrieved from http://www.clarku.edu/clark-poll-emerging-adults/pdfs/clark-university-poll-parents-emerging-adults.pdf .

  8. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Oxford: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67(6), 3296–3319.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Barry, C. M., Madsen, S. D., Nelson, L. J., Carroll, J. S., & Badger, S. (2009). Friendship and romantic relationship qualities in emerging adulthood: Differential associations with identity development and achieved adulthood criteria. Journal of Adult Development, 16(4), 209–222. doi:10.1007/s10804-009-9067-x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bean, R. A., Bush, K. R., McKenry, P. C., & Wilson, S. M. (2003). The impact of parental support, behavioral control, and psychological control on the academic achievement and self-esteem of African American and European American adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18(5), 523–541. doi:10.1177/0743558403255070.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Vagal tone, development, and Gray’s motivational theory: Toward an integrated model of autonomic nervous system functioning in psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 183–214. doi:10.1017/S0954579401002012.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59–73. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.106.1.59.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Boucsein, W. (2012). Electrodermal activity. New York, NY: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 1185–1229.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Casas, J. F., Weigel, S. M., Crick, N. R., Ostrov, J. M., Woods, K. E., Jansen Yeh, E. A., et al. (2006). Early parenting and children’s relational and physical aggression in the preschool and home contexts. Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 209–227. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2006.02.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Cicchetti, D., & Murray-Close, D. (2014). The legacy of nicki R. Crick’s contributions to developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 26(3), 557–559. doi:10.1017/S0954579414000224.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Clarke, C. M., Dahlen, E. R., & Nicholson, B. C. (2015). The role of parenting in relational aggression and prosocial behavior among emerging adults. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, & Trauma, 24, 185–202. doi:10.1080/10926771.2015.1002653.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1998). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology, volume 3: Social, emotional, and personality (pp. 779–862). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Crick, N. R. (1995). Relational aggression: The role of intent attributions, feelings of distress, and provocation type. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 313–322. doi:10.1017/S0954579400006520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information-processing mechanisms on reactive and proactive aggression. Child Development, 67, 993–1002. doi:10.2307/1131875.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722. doi:10.2307/1131945.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1996). Children’s treatment by peers: Victims of relational and overt aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 367–380. doi:10.1017/S0954579400007148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Cummings, E. M., El-Sheikh, M., Kouros, C. D., & Keller, P. S. (2007). Children’s skin conductance reactivity as a mechanism of risk in the context of parental depressive symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 48(5), 436–445. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01713.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Dawson, J. F., & Richter, A. W. (2006). Probing three-way interactions in moderated multiple regression: Development and application of a slope difference test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 917–926. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.917.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Dawson, M. E., Schell, A. M., & Filion, D. L. (2007). The electrodermal system. In: Handbook of psychophysiology (3rd ed.). (pp. 159–181). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

  28. Diamond, L. M., Fagundes, C. P., & Cribbet, M. R. (2012). Individual differences in adolescents’ sympathetic and parasympathetic functioning moderate associations between family environment and psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 48, 918–931. doi:10.1037/a0026901.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1146–1158. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.53.6.1146.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23(1), 7–28. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000611.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. El-Sheikh, M., & Erath, S. A. (2011). Family conflict, autonomic nervous system functioning, and child adaptation: State of the science and future directions. Development and Psychopathology, 23(02), 703–721. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000034.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. El-Sheikh, M., Keller, P. S., & Erath, S. A. (2007). Marital conflict and risk for child maladjustment over time: Skin conductance level reactivity as a vulnerability factor. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(5), 715–727. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9127-2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Erath, S. A., El-Sheikh, M., & Cummings, E. M. (2009). Harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior: Skin conductance level reactivity as a moderator. Child Development, 80, 578–592. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01280.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Erath, S. A., El-Sheikh, M., Hinnant, B., & Cummings, E. M. (2011). Skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between harsh parenting and growth in child externalizing behavior. Developmental Psychology, 47(3), 693–706. doi:10.1037/a0021909.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Ewart, C. K., Jorgensen, R. S., Suchday, S., Chen, E., & Matthews, K. A. (2002). Measuring stress resilience and coping in vulnerable youth: The social competence interview. Psychological Assessment, 14, 339–352. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.14.3.339.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Ewart, C. K., & Kolodner, K. B. (1991). Social Competence Interview for assessing physiological reactivity in adolescents. Psychosomoatic Medicine, 53, 289–304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Ewart, C. K., & Kolodner, K. B. (1994). Negative affect, gender, and expressive style predict elevated ambulatory blood pressure in adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 596–605. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.66.3.596.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Gao, Y., Raine, A., Venables, P. H., Dawson, M. E., & Mednick, S. A. (2010). Reduced electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years is associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 550–558. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02176.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Goldstein, S. E., Young, A., & Boyd, C. (2008). Relational aggression at school: Associations with school safety and social climate. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(6), 641–654. doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9192-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Gregson, K. D., Tu, K. M., & Erath, S. A. (2014). Sweating under pressure: Skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(1), 22–30. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12086.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Grolnick, W. S., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2009). Issues and challenges in studying parental control: Toward a new conceptualization. Child Development Perspectives, 3(3), 165–170. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00099.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Gros, D. F., Gros, K. S., & Simms, L. J. (2010). Relations between anxiety symptoms and relational aggression and victimization in emerging adults. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34, 134–143. doi:10.1007/s10608-009-9236-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Hart, C. H., Nelson, D. A., Robinson, C. C., Olsen, S. F., & McNeilly-Choque, M. K. (1998). Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: Parenting style and marital linkages. Developmental Psychology, 34, 687–697.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Hart, C. H., Nelson, D. A., Robinson, C. C., Olsen, S. F., McNeilly-Choque, M. K., Porter, C. L., et al. (2000). Russian parenting styles and family processes: Linkages with subtypes of victimization and aggression. In K. A. Kerns, J. M. Contreras, & A. M. Neal-Barnett (Eds.), Family and peers: Linking two social worlds (pp. 47–84). Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Heilbron, N., & Prinstein, M. J. (2008). A review and reconceptualization of social aggression: Adaptive and maladaptive correlates. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11(4), 176–217. doi:10.1007/s10567-008-0037-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Hubbard, J. A., McAuliffe, M. D., Morrow, M. T., & Romano, L. J. (2010). Reactive and proactive aggression in childhood and adolescence: Precursors, outcomes, processes, experiences, and measurement. Journal of Personality, 78(1), 95–118. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00610.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Hubbard, J. A., Smithmyer, C. M., Ramsden, S. R., Parker, E. H., Flanagan, K. D., Dearing, K. D., et al. (2002). Observational, physiological, and self-report measures of children’s anger: Relations to reactive versus proactive aggression. Child Development, 73, 1101–1118. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00460.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Karavidas, M. K., Lehrer, P. M., Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., Marin, H., Buyske, S., et al. (2007). Preliminary results of an open label study of heart rate variability biofeedback for the treatment of major depression. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 32, 19–30. doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9029-z.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Kochanska, G., Brock, R. L., Chen, K. H., Aksan, N., & Anderson, S. W. (2015). Paths from mother–child and father–child relationships to externalizing behavior problems in children differing in electrodermal reactivity: A longitudinal study from infancy to age 10. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 721–734. doi:10.1007/s10802-014-9938-x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. Kuppens, S., Grietens, H., Onghena, P., & Michiels, D. (2009a). Associations between parental control and children’s overt and relational aggression. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 607–623.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Kuppens, S., Grietens, H., Onghena, P., & Michiels, D. (2009b). Measuring parenting dimensions in middle childhood. Multitrait-multimethod analysis of child, mother and father ratings. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25, 133–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Kuppens, S., Grietens, H., Onghena, P., & Michiels, D. (2009c). Relations between parental psychological control and childhood relational aggression: Reciprocal in nature? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology: The Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology,. doi:10.1080/15374410802575354.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Kuppens, S., Laurent, L., Heyvaert, M., & Onghena, P. (2013). Associations between parental psychological control and relational aggression in children and adolescents: A multilevel and sequential meta-analysis. Developmental Psychology, 49(9), 1697–1712. doi:10.1037/a0030740.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Linder, J. R., Crick, N. R., & Collins, W. A. (2002). Relational aggression and victimization in young adults’ romantic relationships: Associations with perceptions of parent, peer, and romantic relationship quality. Social Development, 11, 69–86. doi:10.1111/1467-9507.00187.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Little, T., Jones, S., Henrich, C., & Hawley, P. (2003). Disentangling the “whys” from the “whats” of aggressive behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 122–133. doi:10.1080/01650250244000128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Little, M., & Seay, D. (2014). By-gender risk paths of parental psychological control effects on emerging adult overt and relational aggression. Journal of Social and Personal Relationhips,. doi:10.1177/0265407513517808.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Lorber, M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130(4), 531–552. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.4.531.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Loudin, J. L., Loukas, A., & Robinson, S. (2003). Relational aggression in college students: Examining the roles of social anxiety and empathy. Aggressive Behavior, 29(5), 430–439. doi:10.1002/ab.10039.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Loukas, A., Paulos, S. K., & Robinson, S. (2005). Early adolescent social and overt aggression: Examining the roles of social anxiety and maternal psychological control. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 335–345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Goossens, L., & Berzonsky, M. D. (2007). Parental psychological control and dimensions of identity formation in emerging adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(3), 546–550. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.21.3.546.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Marsee, M., Barry, C., Childs, K., Frick, P., Kimonis, E., Muñoz, L., et al. (2011). Assessing the forms and functions of aggression using self-report: Factor structure and invariance of the Peer Conflict Scale in youths. Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 792–804. doi:10.1037/a0023369.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Marsee, M., Frick, P., Barry, C., Kimonis, E., Centifanti, L. M., & Aucoin, K. (2014). Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 705–720. doi:10.1017/S0954579414000339.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Marshall, N. A., Arnold, D. H., Rolon-Arroyo, B., & Griffith, S. F. (2015). The association between relational aggression and internalizing symptoms: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 34(2), 135–160. doi:10.1521/jscp.2015.34.2.135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Murray-Close, D. (2007). A short-term longitudinal study of growth of relational aggression during middle childhood: Associations with gender, friendship intimacy, and internalizing problems. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 187–203.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Murray-Close, D. (2011). Autonomic reactivity and romantic relational aggression among female emerging adults: Moderating role of social and cognitive risk. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 80(1), 28–35. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.01.007.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Murray-Close, D. (2013a). Psychophysiology of adolescent peer relations I: Theory and research findings. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(2), 236–259. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00828.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Murray-Close, D. (2013b). Psychophysiology of adolescent peer relations II: Recent advances and future directions. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(2), 260–273. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00831.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Murray-Close, D., Crick, N. R., Tseng, W., Lafko, N., Burrows, C., Pitula, C., et al. (2014). Physiological stress reactivity and physical and relational aggression: The moderating roles of victimization, type of stressor, and child gender. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 589–603. doi:10.1017/S095457941400025X.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Nelson, L. J. (2005). Distinguishing features of emerging adulthood: The role of self-classification as an adult. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20(2), 242–262. doi:10.1177/0743558404273074.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Nelson, D. A., & Crick, N. R. (2002). Parental psychological control: Implications for childhood physical and relational aggression. In B. K. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents (pp. 161–189). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Nelson, D. A., Hart, C. H., Yang, C., Olsen, J. A., & Jin, S. (2006). Aversive parenting in china: Associations with child physical and relational aggression. Child Development, 77(3), 554–572.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Nelson, L. J., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Christensen, K. J., Evans, C. A., & Carroll, J. S. (2011). Parenting in emerging adulthood: An examination of parenting clusters and correlates. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(6), 730–743. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9584-8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Nelson, D. A., Springer, M. M., Nelson, L. J., & Bean, N. H. (2008). Normative beliefs regarding aggression in emerging adulthood. Social Development, 17(3), 638–660. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00442.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Obradović, J. (2012). How can the study of physiological reactivity contribute to our understanding of adversity and resilience processes in development? Development and Psychopathology, 24, 371–387. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000053.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Obradović, J., Bush, N. R., & Boyce, W. T. (2011). The interactive effect of marital conflict and stress reactivity on externalizing and internalizing symptoms: The role of laboratory stressors. Development and Psychopathology, 23(1), 101–114. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000672.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Olsen, S. F., Yang, C., Hart, C. H., Robinson, C. C., Wu, P., Nelson, D. A., et al. (2002). Maternal psychological control and preschool children’s behavioral outcomes in China, Russia, and the United States. In Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents. (pp. 235–262) American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. doi:10.1037/10422-008.

  77. Ostrov, J. M. (2008). Forms of aggression and peer victimization during early childhood: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 311–322. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9179-3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Ostrov, J. M., & Houston, R. J. (2008). The utility of forms and functions of aggression in emerging adulthood: Association with personality disorder symptomatology. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 1147–1158. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9289-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Ostrov, J. M., Murray-Close, D., Godleski, S. A., & Hart, E. J. (2013). Prospective associations between forms and functions of aggression and social and affective processes during early childhood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 19–36. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2012.12.009.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., & Knapp, D. J. (2014). “Because I’m still the parent, that’s why!” Parental legitimate authority during emerging adulthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(3), 293–313. doi:10.1177/0265407513494949.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Pluess, M. (2015). Individual differences in environmental sensitivity. Child Development Perspectives,. doi:10.1111/cdep.12120.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Posthumus, J. A., Bocker, K. B., Raaijmakers, M. A., Van Engeland, H., & Matthys, W. (2009). Heart rate and skin conductance in four-year-old children with aggressive behavior. Biological Psychology, 82, 164–168. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.07.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Poulin, F., & Boivin, M. (2000). Reactive and proactive aggression: Evidence of a two-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 12, 115–122. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.12.2.115.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 311–326. doi:10.1023/A:1015754122318.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Rodkin, P., Espelage, D., & Hanish, L. (2015). A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes. American Psychologist, 70(4), 311–321. doi:10.1037/a0038658.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Rousseau, S., Grietens, H., Vanderfaeillie, J., Hoppenbrouwers, K., Wiersema, J. R., Baetens, I., et al. (2014). The association between parenting behavior and somatization in adolescents explained by physiological responses in adolescents. International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, 93(2), 261–266. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.05.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Scarpa, A., Haden, S. C., & Tanaka, A. (2010). Being hot-tempered: Autonomic, emotional, and behavioral distinctions between childhood reactive and proactive aggression. Biological Psychology, 84, 488–496. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.11.006.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Scarpa, A., & Raine, A. (1997). Psychophysiology of anger and violent behavior. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20, 375–394. doi:10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70318-X.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., Hubbard, J. A., Cillessen, A. H., Lemerise, E. A., et al. (1998). Social-cognitive and behavioral correlates of aggression and victimization in boys’ play groups. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 431–440. doi:10.1023/A:1022695601088.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Sheppes, G., Catran, E., & Meiran, N. (2009). Reappraisal (but not distraction) is going to make you sweat: Physiological evidence for self-control effort. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71(2), 91–96. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.06.006.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. Shoulberg, E. K., Sijtsema, J. J., & Murray-Close, D. (2011). The association between valuing popularity and relational aggression: The moderating effects of actual popularity and physiological reactivity to exclusion. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110, 20–37. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2011.03.008.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. Sijtsema, J. J., Shoulberg, E. K., & Murray-Close, C. (2011). Physiological reactivity and different forms of aggression in girls: Moderating roles of rejection sensitivity and peer rejection. Biological Psychology, 86, 181–192. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.11.007.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: Proposing new insights on the basis of self-determination theory. Developmental Review, 30(1), 74–99. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2009.11.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Goossens, L., Duriez, B., & Niemiec, C. (2008). The intervening role of relational aggression between psychological control and friendship quality. Social Development, 17, 661–681. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e318162aabf.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Storch, E. A., Bagner, D. M., Geffken, G. R., & Baumeister, A. L. (2004). Association between overt and relational aggression and psychosocial adjustment in undergraduate college students. Violence and Victims, 19(6), 689–700.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  96. Urry, S. A., Nelson, L. J., & Padilla-Walker, L. (2011). Mother knows best: Psychological control, child disclosure, and maternal knowledge in emerging adulthood. Journal of Family Studies, 17(2), 157–173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. van Goozen, S., Fairchild, G., Snoek, H., & Harold, G. T. (2007). The evidence for a neurobiological model of childhood antisocial behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 149–182. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.149.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  98. Verona, E., Sadeh, N., Case, S., Reed, A., & Bhattacharjee, A. (2008). Self-reported use of different forms of aggression in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Assessment, 15, 493–510. doi:10.1177/1073191108318250.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. Vitaro, F., Gendreau, P. L., Tremblay, R. E., & Oligny, P. (1998). Reactive and proactive aggression differentially predict later conduct problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 377–385. doi:10.1017/S0021963097002102.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  100. Voulgaridou, I., & Kokkinos, C. M. (2015). Relational aggression in adolescents: A review of theoretical and empirical research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 87–97. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2015.05.006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Wagner, C., & Abaied, J. (2015). Relational victimization and proactive versus reactive relational aggression: The moderating effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and skin conductance. Aggressive Behavior, 41(6), 566–579. doi:10.1002/ab.21596.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  102. Wang, Q., Pomerantz, E. M., & Chen, H. (2007). The role of parents control in early adolescents psychological functioning: A longitudinal investigation in the United States and China. Child Development, 78(5), 1592–1610.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  103. Wegner, D. M., & Gold, D. B. (1995). Fanning old flames: Emotional and cognitive effects of suppressing thoughts of a past relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(5), 782–792.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank the UVM Family Development Lab for assisting with this study. We also thank the youth who participated in this study.

Author Contributions

CW conceived of the study, participated in the design and coordination of the study, co-drafted the manuscript, performed statistical analyses, and interpreted the data. JA participated in the design and coordination of the study, and co-drafted the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript.

Funding

University funding was used to fund this study.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Caitlin R. Wagner.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wagner, C.R., Abaied, J.L. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Parental Psychological Control and Relational Aggression in Emerging Adulthood. J Youth Adolescence 45, 687–700 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0422-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Parenting
  • Autonomic stress reactivity
  • Emerging adulthood
  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Aggression