The Longitudinal Associations Between Discrimination, Depressive Symptoms, and Prosocial Behaviors in U.S. Latino/a Recent Immigrant Adolescents
- 1.5k Downloads
The links between discrimination and adjustment in U.S. Latino/a immigrant adolescents is an important but understudied phenomenon. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal associations (across 1 year) among discrimination, prosocial behaviors, and depressive symptoms in U.S. Latino immigrant adolescents using two competing models: associations between discrimination and prosocial behaviors via depressive symptoms (mental health strain model), and associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms via prosocial behaviors (prosociality strain model). Participants were 302 Latino/a recent immigrant adolescents (53.3 % boys, M age = 14.51 years at Time 1, SD = .88 years) who completed measures of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and prosocial behaviors at 6-month intervals. The results provided support for both proposed models. The discussion examines the importance of prosocial behaviors in understanding adjustment and effects of discrimination among recently immigrated U.S. Latino adolescents.
KeywordsDiscrimination Depressive symptoms Prosocial behaviors U.S. Latina/o youth
The research presented here was supported by National Institute on Drug Abuse grant DA026594 (Seth J. Schwartz and Jennifer B. Unger, Principal Investigators). We would like to thank Maria-Rosa Velazquez, Tatiana Clavijo, Mercedes Prado, Alba Alfonso, Aleyda Marcos, Daisy Ramirez, Lissette Ramirez, and Perlita Carrillo for their hard work conducting assessments and tracking families. We would also like to thank Dr. Judy Arroyo for her guidance and wisdom. Finally, we would like to thank the study families for sharing their experiences with us.
AND conceived the study, conducted the analyses, and was primarily responsible for writing the manuscript. GC helped with study development and assisted with writing and revising the manuscript. SJS and JBU were the principal investigators on the COPAL project and provided extensive feedback on the data analyses and manuscript drafts. BLZ, ELB, MMM, AO, and BMPW were collaborators on the COPAL team and provided feedback on the manuscript. LB was part of the COPAL research team and provided feedback on the manuscript. CS assisted with manuscript development and provided feedback throughout the process. KL and DS managed the COPAL data collection.
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
- Batson, C. D., & Powell, A. A. (2003). Altruism and prosocial behavior. In Handbook of psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. doi: 10.1002/0471264385.wei0519.
- Brittian, A. S., O’Donnell, M., Knight, G. P., Carlo, G., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Roosa, M. W. (2013). Associations between adolescents’ perceived discrimination and prosocial tendencies: The mediating role of Mexican American values. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(3), 328–341. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9856-6.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Ottawa, Ontario: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
- Cabrera, N. J. (2013). Positive development of minority children. Society for Research in Child Development: Social Policy Report, 27(2), 1–23.Google Scholar
- Carlo, G. (2006). Care-based and altruistically based morality. In M. Killen & J. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 551–580). New York: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
- Carlo, G. (2014). The development and correlates of prosocial moral behaviors. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development. New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Chen, X., Li, D., Li, Z. Y., Li, B. S., & Liu, M. (2000). Sociable and prosocial dimensions of social competence in Chinese children: Common and unique contributions to social, academic, and psychological adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 36(3), 302–314. doi: 10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1992.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Crockett, L. J., Iturbide, M. I., Torres Stone, R. A., McGinley, M., Raffaelli, M., & Carlo, G. (2007). Acculturative stress, social support, and coping: Relations to psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(4), 347–355. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.13.4.347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Miller, P. A., Fultz, J., Shell, R., Mathy, R. M., & Reno, R. R. (1989). Relation of sympathy and personal distress to prosocial behavior: A multimethod study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(1), 55–66. doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ennis, S. R., Ríos-Vargas, M., & Albert, N. G. (2011). The Hispanic population: 2010. Suitland: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
- Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Bachen, E. A., Pasch, L. A., & de Groat, C. L. (2008). Perceived discrimination, perceived stress, and mental and physical health among Mexican-origin adults. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 30(4), 401–424. doi: 10.1177/0739986308323056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Pasch, L. A., & de Groat, C. L. (2010). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3), 264–273. doi: 10.1037/a0020026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Forster, M., Grigsby, T., Soto, D. W., Schwartz, S. J., & Unger, J. B. (2014). The role of bicultural stress and perceived context of reception in the expression of aggression and rule breaking behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1(21), 1–21. doi: 10.1177/0886260514549052.Google Scholar
- Hovey, J. D., & King, C. A. (1996). Acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal ideation among immigrant and second-generation Latino adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(9), 1183–1192. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199609000-00016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., & Nieri, T. (2009). Perceived ethnic discrimination versus acculturation stress: Influences on substance use among Latino youth in the Southwest. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 443–459. doi: 10.1177/002214650905000405.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Lorenzo-Blanco, E. I., & Unger, J. B. (2015). Ethnic discrimination, acculturative Stress, and family conflict as predictors of depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among Latina/o Youth: The mediating role of perceived stress. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(10), 1984–1997. doi: 10.1007/s10964-015-0339-4.
- Lorenzo-Blanco, E. I., Unger, J. B., Ritt-Olson, A., Soto, D., & Baezconde-Garbanati, L. (2011). Acculturation, gender, depression, and cigarette smoking among U.S. Hispanic youth: The mediating role of perceived discrimination. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(11), 1519–1533. doi: 10.1007/s10964-011-9633-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McGinley, M., Carlo, G., Crockett, L. J., Raffaelli, M., Torres Stone, R. A., & Iturbide, M. I. (2010). Stressed and helping: The relations among acculturative stress, gender, and prosocial tendencies in Mexican Americans. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 34–56. doi: 10.1080/00224540903365323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Padilla, A. M., Cervantes, R. C., Maldonado, M., & Garcia, R. E. (2013). Coping responses for psychosocial stressors among Mexican and central American immigrants. In P. B. Organista, K. M. Chun, & G. Marín (Eds.), Readings in ethnic psychology. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Passel, J. S., Cohn, D., & Lopez, M. H. (2011). Hispanics account for more than half of nation’s growth in past decade. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
- Peña, J. B., Wyman, P. A., Brown, C. H., Matthieu, M. M., Olivares, T. E., Hartel, D., & Zayas, L. H. (2008). Immigration generation status and its association with suicide attempts, substance use, and depressive symptoms among Latino adolescents in the USA. Prevention Science, 9(4), 299–310. doi: 10.1007/s11121-008-0105-x.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pew Research Center. (2009). Between two worlds: How young Latinos come of age in America. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2009/12/11/between-two-worlds-how-young-latinos-come-of-age-in-america.
- Pew Research Center. (2013). A nation of immigrants: A portrait of the 40 million, including 11 million unauthorized. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2013/01/29/a-nation-of-immigrants/.
- Pew Research Center. (2015). Statistical portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 1980-2013. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2015/05/12/statistical-portrait-of-hispanics-in-the-united-states-2013-key-charts/#share-mexican-origin.
- Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2006). Immigrant America: A portrait. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Potochnick, S. R., & Perreira, K. M. (2010). Depression and anxiety among first-generation immigrant Latino youth: Key correlates and implications for future research. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(7), 470–477. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181e4ce24.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Potochnick, S., Perreira, K. M., & Fuligni, A. (2012). Fitting In: The roles of social acceptance and discrimination in shaping the daily psychological well-being of Latino Youth. Social Science Quarterly, 93(1), 173–190. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2011.00830.x.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Randall, B. A., & Wenner, J. R. (2014). Adopting a multidimensional perspective on college students’ prosocial behaviors. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & G. Carlo (Eds.), Prosocial development: A multidimensional perspective. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Benet-Martínez, V., Meca, A., Zamboanga, B. L., et al. (2015a). Longitudinal trajectories of bicultural identity integration in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with mental health and family functioning. International Journal of Psychology. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., Córdova, D., Mason, C. A., Huang, S., et al. (2015b). Developmental trajectories of acculturation: Links with family functioning and mental health in recent-immigrant hispanic adolescents. Child Development, 86(3), 726–748. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2007). Latino adolescents’ mental health: Exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 30(4), 549–567. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.08.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walters, N. P., & Trevelyan, E. N. (2011). The newly arrived foreign-born population of the United States: 2010. Suitland: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau.Google Scholar