Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 457–470 | Cite as

The Longitudinal Associations Between Discrimination, Depressive Symptoms, and Prosocial Behaviors in U.S. Latino/a Recent Immigrant Adolescents

  • Alexandra N. DavisEmail author
  • Gustavo Carlo
  • Seth J. Schwartz
  • Jennifer B. Unger
  • Byron L. Zamboanga
  • Elma I. Lorenzo-Blanco
  • Miguel Ángel Cano
  • Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
  • Assaf Oshri
  • Cara Streit
  • Miriam M. Martinez
  • Brandy Piña-Watson
  • Karina Lizzi
  • Daniel Soto
Empirical Research

Abstract

The links between discrimination and adjustment in U.S. Latino/a immigrant adolescents is an important but understudied phenomenon. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal associations (across 1 year) among discrimination, prosocial behaviors, and depressive symptoms in U.S. Latino immigrant adolescents using two competing models: associations between discrimination and prosocial behaviors via depressive symptoms (mental health strain model), and associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms via prosocial behaviors (prosociality strain model). Participants were 302 Latino/a recent immigrant adolescents (53.3 % boys, M age = 14.51 years at Time 1, SD = .88 years) who completed measures of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and prosocial behaviors at 6-month intervals. The results provided support for both proposed models. The discussion examines the importance of prosocial behaviors in understanding adjustment and effects of discrimination among recently immigrated U.S. Latino adolescents.

Keywords

Discrimination Depressive symptoms Prosocial behaviors U.S. Latina/o youth 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research presented here was supported by National Institute on Drug Abuse grant DA026594 (Seth J. Schwartz and Jennifer B. Unger, Principal Investigators). We would like to thank Maria-Rosa Velazquez, Tatiana Clavijo, Mercedes Prado, Alba Alfonso, Aleyda Marcos, Daisy Ramirez, Lissette Ramirez, and Perlita Carrillo for their hard work conducting assessments and tracking families. We would also like to thank Dr. Judy Arroyo for her guidance and wisdom. Finally, we would like to thank the study families for sharing their experiences with us.

Author Contributions

AND conceived the study, conducted the analyses, and was primarily responsible for writing the manuscript. GC helped with study development and assisted with writing and revising the manuscript. SJS and JBU were the principal investigators on the COPAL project and provided extensive feedback on the data analyses and manuscript drafts. BLZ, ELB, MMM, AO, and BMPW were collaborators on the COPAL team and provided feedback on the manuscript. LB was part of the COPAL research team and provided feedback on the manuscript. CS assisted with manuscript development and provided feedback throughout the process. KL and DS managed the COPAL data collection.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Armenta, B. E., Knight, G. P., Carlo, G., & Jacobson, R. P. (2011). The relation between ethnic group attachment and prosocial tendencies: The mediating role of cultural values. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(1), 107–115. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Batson, C. D., Fultz, J., & Schoenrade, P. A. (1987). Distress and empathy: Two qualitatively distinct vicarious emotions with different motivational consequences. Journal of Personality, 55(1), 19–39. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1987.tb00426.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Batson, C. D., & Powell, A. A. (2003). Altruism and prosocial behavior. In Handbook of psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. doi: 10.1002/0471264385.wei0519.
  4. Brittian, A. S., O’Donnell, M., Knight, G. P., Carlo, G., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Roosa, M. W. (2013). Associations between adolescents’ perceived discrimination and prosocial tendencies: The mediating role of Mexican American values. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(3), 328–341. doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9856-6.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Ottawa, Ontario: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
  6. Cabrera, N. J. (2013). Positive development of minority children. Society for Research in Child Development: Social Policy Report, 27(2), 1–23.Google Scholar
  7. Calderón-Tena, C. O., Knight, G. P., & Carlo, G. (2011). The socialization of prosocial behavioral tendencies among Mexican American adolescents: The role of familism values. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(1), 98–106. doi: 10.1037/a0021825.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlo, G. (2006). Care-based and altruistically based morality. In M. Killen & J. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development (pp. 551–580). New York: Routledge Press.Google Scholar
  9. Carlo, G. (2014). The development and correlates of prosocial moral behaviors. In M. Killen & J. G. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of moral development. New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  10. Carlo, G., Hausmann, A., Christiansen, S., & Randall, B. A. (2003). Sociocognitive and behavioral correlates of a measure of prosocial tendencies for adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 23(1), 107–134. doi: 10.1177/0272431602239132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlo, G., & Randall, B. A. (2002). The development of a measure of prosocial behaviors for late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(1), 31–44. doi: 10.1023/A:1014033032440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, X., Li, D., Li, Z. Y., Li, B. S., & Liu, M. (2000). Sociable and prosocial dimensions of social competence in Chinese children: Common and unique contributions to social, academic, and psychological adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 36(3), 302–314. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.36.3.302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cialdini, R. B., Darby, B. L., & Vincent, J. E. (1973). Transgression and altruism: A case for hedonism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, 502–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crockett, L. J., Iturbide, M. I., Torres Stone, R. A., McGinley, M., Raffaelli, M., & Carlo, G. (2007). Acculturative stress, social support, and coping: Relations to psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(4), 347–355. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.13.4.347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dimitrov, D. M. (2010). Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43(2), 121–149. doi: 10.1177/0748175610373459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Miller, P. A., Fultz, J., Shell, R., Mathy, R. M., & Reno, R. R. (1989). Relation of sympathy and personal distress to prosocial behavior: A multimethod study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(1), 55–66. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.1.55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ennis, S. R., Ríos-Vargas, M., & Albert, N. G. (2011). The Hispanic population: 2010. Suitland: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  18. Fisher, C. B., Wallace, S. A., & Fenton, R. E. (2000). Discrimination distress during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(6), 679–695. doi: 10.1023/A:1026455906512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Bachen, E. A., Pasch, L. A., & de Groat, C. L. (2008). Perceived discrimination, perceived stress, and mental and physical health among Mexican-origin adults. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 30(4), 401–424. doi: 10.1177/0739986308323056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Flores, E., Tschann, J. M., Dimas, J. M., Pasch, L. A., & de Groat, C. L. (2010). Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and health risk behaviors among Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3), 264–273. doi: 10.1037/a0020026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Forster, M., Grigsby, T., Soto, D. W., Schwartz, S. J., & Unger, J. B. (2014). The role of bicultural stress and perceived context of reception in the expression of aggression and rule breaking behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1(21), 1–21. doi: 10.1177/0886260514549052.Google Scholar
  22. Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H, Jr. (2001). Pubertal transition, stressful life events, and the emergence of gender differences in adolescent depressive symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 37(3), 404–417. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.37.3.404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ge, X., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Trajectories of stressful life events and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 30(4), 467–483. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.30.4.467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gueguen, N., & De Gail, M. A. (2003). The effect of smiling on helping behavior: Smiling and good Samaritan behavior. Communication Reports, 16(2), 133–140. doi: 10.1080/08934210309384496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Horowitz, J. L., & Garber, J. (2006). The prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(3), 401–415. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hovey, J. D., & King, C. A. (1996). Acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal ideation among immigrant and second-generation Latino adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(9), 1183–1192. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199609000-00016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., & Nieri, T. (2009). Perceived ethnic discrimination versus acculturation stress: Influences on substance use among Latino youth in the Southwest. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 443–459. doi: 10.1177/002214650905000405.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Lorenzo-Blanco, E. I., & Unger, J. B. (2015). Ethnic discrimination, acculturative Stress, and family conflict as predictors of depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among Latina/o Youth: The mediating role of perceived stress. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(10), 1984–1997. doi: 10.1007/s10964-015-0339-4.
  31. Lorenzo-Blanco, E. I., Unger, J. B., Ritt-Olson, A., Soto, D., & Baezconde-Garbanati, L. (2011). Acculturation, gender, depression, and cigarette smoking among U.S. Hispanic youth: The mediating role of perceived discrimination. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(11), 1519–1533. doi: 10.1007/s10964-011-9633-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.7.1.83.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Major, B., & O’Brien, L. T. (2005) . The social psychology of stigma. Annual Review of Psychology, 56(363), 393–421. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. McGinley, M., Carlo, G., Crockett, L. J., Raffaelli, M., Torres Stone, R. A., & Iturbide, M. I. (2010). Stressed and helping: The relations among acculturative stress, gender, and prosocial tendencies in Mexican Americans. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 34–56. doi: 10.1080/00224540903365323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., & Grayson, C. (1999). Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1061–1072.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Padilla, A. M., Cervantes, R. C., Maldonado, M., & Garcia, R. E. (2013). Coping responses for psychosocial stressors among Mexican and central American immigrants. In P. B. Organista, K. M. Chun, & G. Marín (Eds.), Readings in ethnic psychology. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Padilla-Walker, L. M., Carlo, G., & Nielson, M. G. (2015). Does helping keep teens protected? Longitudinal bidirectional relations between prosocial behavior and problem behavior. Child Development, 86(6), 1759–1772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Passel, J. S., Cohn, D., & Lopez, M. H. (2011). Hispanics account for more than half of nation’s growth in past decade. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
  39. Peña, J. B., Wyman, P. A., Brown, C. H., Matthieu, M. M., Olivares, T. E., Hartel, D., & Zayas, L. H. (2008). Immigration generation status and its association with suicide attempts, substance use, and depressive symptoms among Latino adolescents in the USA. Prevention Science, 9(4), 299–310. doi: 10.1007/s11121-008-0105-x.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Pérez, D. J., Fortuna, L., & Alegria, M. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of everyday discrimination among US Latinos. Journal of Community Psychology, 36(4), 421–433. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20221.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Pew Research Center. (2009). Between two worlds: How young Latinos come of age in America. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2009/12/11/between-two-worlds-how-young-latinos-come-of-age-in-america.
  42. Pew Research Center. (2013). A nation of immigrants: A portrait of the 40 million, including 11 million unauthorized. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2013/01/29/a-nation-of-immigrants/.
  43. Pew Research Center. (2015). Statistical portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 1980-2013. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2015/05/12/statistical-portrait-of-hispanics-in-the-united-states-2013-key-charts/#share-mexican-origin.
  44. Phinney, J. S., Madden, T., & Santos, L. J. (1998). Psychological variables as predictors of perceived ethnic discrimination among minority and immigrant adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(11), 937–953. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01661.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2006). Immigrant America: A portrait. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  46. Potochnick, S. R., & Perreira, K. M. (2010). Depression and anxiety among first-generation immigrant Latino youth: Key correlates and implications for future research. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(7), 470–477. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181e4ce24.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Potochnick, S., Perreira, K. M., & Fuligni, A. (2012). Fitting In: The roles of social acceptance and discrimination in shaping the daily psychological well-being of Latino Youth. Social Science Quarterly, 93(1), 173–190. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2011.00830.x.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Radloff, L. S. (1991). The use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20(2), 149–166. doi: 10.1007/BF01537606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Randall, B. A., & Wenner, J. R. (2014). Adopting a multidimensional perspective on college students’ prosocial behaviors. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & G. Carlo (Eds.), Prosocial development: A multidimensional perspective. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Rohrbeck, C. A. (2003). Peer relationships, adolescence. In T. P. Gullotta & M. Bloom (Eds.), Encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion (pp. 808–812). US: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Roosa, M. W., Tein, J. Y., Reinholtz, C., & Angelini, P. J. (1997). The relationship of childhood sexual abuse to teenage pregnancy. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 119–130. doi: 10.2307/353666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rosenbloom, S. R., & Way, N. (2004). Experiences of discrimination among African American, Asian American, and Latino adolescents in an urban high school. Youth & Society, 35(4), 420–451. doi: 10.1177/0044118X03261479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rudmin, F. (2009). Constructs, measurements and models of acculturation and acculturative stress. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33, 106–123. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schwartz, C. E., & Sendor, R. M. (1999). Helping others helps oneself: Response shift effects in peer support. Social Science and Medicine, 48(11), 1563–1575. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00049-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Benet-Martínez, V., Meca, A., Zamboanga, B. L., et al. (2015a). Longitudinal trajectories of bicultural identity integration in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with mental health and family functioning. International Journal of Psychology. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., Córdova, D., Mason, C. A., Huang, S., et al. (2015b). Developmental trajectories of acculturation: Links with family functioning and mental health in recent-immigrant hispanic adolescents. Child Development, 86(3), 726–748. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Smart Richman, L., & Leary, M. R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection: A multimotive model. Psychological Review, 116(2), 365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Storch, E. A., Nock, M. K., Masia-Warner, C., & Barlas, M. E. (2003). Peer victimization and social-psychological adjustment in Hispanic and African-American children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12(4), 439–452. doi: 10.1023/A:1026016124091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Szalacha, L. A., Erkut, S., Coll, C. G., Alarcon, O., Fields, J. P., & Ceder, I. (2003). Discrimination and Puerto Rican children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(2), 141–155. doi: 10.1037/1099-9809.9.2.141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Taylor, S. E., Klein, L. C., Lewis, B. P., Gruenewald, T. L., Gurung, R. A., & Updegraff, J. A. (2000). Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychological Review, 107(3), 411–429. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.107.3.411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Torres, L., & Ong, A. D. (2010). A daily diary investigation of latino ethnic identity, discrimination, and depression. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(4), 561–568. doi: 10.1037/a0020652.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2007). Latino adolescents’ mental health: Exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 30(4), 549–567. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.08.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Walters, N. P., & Trevelyan, E. N. (2011). The newly arrived foreign-born population of the United States: 2010. Suitland: US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  64. Wentzel, K. R., Filisetti, L., & Looney, L. (2007). Adolescent prosocial behavior: The role of self-processes and contextual cues. Child Development, 78(3), 895–910. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01039.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Wentzel, K. R., & McNamara, C. C. (1999). Interpersonal relationships, emotional distress, and prosocial behavior in middle school. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(1), 114–125. doi: 10.1177/0272431699019001006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wilson, J., & Musick, M. (1999). The effects of volunteering on the volunteer. Law and Contemporary Problems, 62(4), 141–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra N. Davis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gustavo Carlo
    • 2
  • Seth J. Schwartz
    • 3
  • Jennifer B. Unger
    • 4
  • Byron L. Zamboanga
    • 5
  • Elma I. Lorenzo-Blanco
    • 6
  • Miguel Ángel Cano
    • 7
  • Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati
    • 8
  • Assaf Oshri
    • 9
  • Cara Streit
    • 1
  • Miriam M. Martinez
    • 1
  • Brandy Piña-Watson
    • 10
  • Karina Lizzi
    • 11
  • Daniel Soto
    • 12
  1. 1.University of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.University of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Leonard M. Miller School of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  4. 4.Institute for Prevention Research (IPR)University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  5. 5.Smith CollegeNorthamptonUSA
  6. 6.Barnwell CollegeUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  7. 7.Florida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  8. 8.University of South CarolinaLos AngelesUSA
  9. 9.University of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  10. 10.Texas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  11. 11.InVentiv Health ClinicalPrincetonUSA
  12. 12.Krek School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations