Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Sexual (Minority) Trajectories, Mental Health, and Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Study of Youth as They Transition to Adulthood

  • Empirical Research
  • Published:
Journal of Youth and Adolescence Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning youth health disparities are well documented; however, study limitations restrict our understanding of how the temporal interplay among domains of sexuality (attraction, behavior, and identity) situate individuals to be more or less at risk for poor mental health and alcohol use across the transition to adulthood. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 12,679; 51.29 % female) were used with repeated measures latent class analysis to estimate sexual trajectory groups designated by prospective reports of romantic attraction, sexual/romantic behavior, and sexual identity from adolescence to adulthood. Five unique trajectories emerged: two heterosexual groups (heterosexual early daters [58.37 %] and heterosexual later daters [29.83 %]) and three sexual minority groups (heteroflexible [6.44 %], later bisexually identified [3.32 %], and LG[B] identified [2.03 %]). These sexual trajectories differentiate risk for depressive symptomology, suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and alcohol use during adolescence and early adulthood. Groups where individuals first reported same-sex attraction and sexual minority identities in adulthood (heteroflexible and later bisexually identified) had similar levels of depression, suicidality, and greater substance use than those who largely reported same-sex attraction and behavior during adolescence (the LG[B] identified group). These later recognition groups showed greater risk for poor outcomes in waves where they also first reported these changes in attraction, behaviors, and identities. The emergence of three sexual minority groups reveal within-group differences in sexuality and sexual trajectories and how these experiences relate to risk and timing of risk across the transition to adulthood.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Bailey, J. M., & Zucker, K. J. (1995). Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: A conceptual analysis and quantitative review. Developmental Psychology, 31, 43–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bell, J. G., & Perry, B. (2015). Outside looking in: The community impacts of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual hate crimes. Journal of Homosexuality, 62, 98–120. doi: 10.1080/00918369.2014.957133

  • Birkett, M., Espelage, D. L., & Koenig, B. (2009). LGB and questioning students in schools: The moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 989–1000. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9389-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bostwick, W. B., Boyd, C. J., Hughes, T. L., & McCabe, S. E. (2010). Dimensions of sexual orientation and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 468–475. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.15942.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bostwick, W. B., Meyer, I., Aranda, F., Russell, S., Hughes, T., Birkett, M., & Mustanski, B. (2014). Mental health and suicidality among racially/ethnically diverse sexual minority youths. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 1129–1136.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brook, D. W., Brook, J. S., Zhang, C., Cohen, P., & Whiteman, M. (2002). Drug use and the risk of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and substance use disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1039–1044. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.59.11.1039.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, S. A., McGue, M., Maggs, J., Schulenberg, J., Hingson, R., Swartzwelder, S., et al. (2008). A developmental perspective on alcohol and youths 16 to 20 years of age. Pediatrics, 121, S290–S310. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2243D.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cass, V. C. (1979). Homosexuality identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219–235.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cass, V. C. (1984). Homosexual identity formation: Testing a theoretical model. Journal of Sex Research, 20, 143–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chandra, A., Mosher, W. D., Copen, C., & Sionean, C. (2011). Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity in the United States: Data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics.

  • Chantala, K. (2006). Guidelines for analyzing Add Health data. Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/data/guides/wt-guidelines.pdf

  • Chantala, K. & Tabor, J. (1999). Strategies to perform a design-based analysis using the Add Health data. Carolina Population Center: University of Carolina at Chapel Hill.

  • Collins, L., & Lanza, S. (2010). Latent class and latent transition analysis: With application in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., & Starks, M. T. (2005). Parents’ awareness of lesbian, gay, band bisexual youths’ sexual orientation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 474–482.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • D’Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., & Starks, M. T. (2006). Childhood gender atypicality, victimization, and PTSD among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 1462–1482. doi:10.1177/0886260506293482.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • D’Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., & Starks, M. T. (2008). Gender atypicality and sexual orientation development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 12, 121–143. doi:10.1300/J2589v12n01_08.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dermody, S. S., Marshal, M. P., Cheong, J., Burton, C., Hughes, T., Aranda, F., & Friedman, M. S. (2014). Longitudinal disparities of hazardous drinking between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 30–39. doi:10.1007/s10964-013-9905-9.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, L. (2003). New paradigms for research on heterosexual and sexual minority development. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 490–498. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3204_1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, L. (2008). Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Results from a 10-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44, 5–14. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, M., & Wechsler, H. (2003). Substance use behaviors among college students with same-sex and opposite-sex experience: Results from a national study. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 899–913. doi:10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00286-6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eliason, M. J., & Schope, R. (2007). Shifting sands or solid foundation? Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender identity formation. In I. H. Meyer & M. E. Northridge (Eds.), The health of sexual minorities (pp. 3–26). New York, NY: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Engels, R. C., & Knibbe, R. A. (2000). Alcohol use and intimate relationships in adolescence: When love comes to town. Addictive Behaviors, 25, 435–439. doi:10.1016/S0306-4603998)00123-3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fedewa, A. L., & Ahn, S. (2011). The effects of bullying and peer victimization on sexual-minority and heterosexual youths: A quantitative meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 7, 398–418. doi:10.1080/1550428X.2011.592968.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Ridder, E. M., & Beautrais, A. L. (2005). Sexual orientation and mental health in a birth cohort of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 35, 971–981. doi:10.1017/S0033291704004222.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Floyd, F. J., & Stein, T. S. (2002). Sexual orientation identity formation among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: Multiple patterns of milestone experiences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 167–191. doi:10.1111/1532-7795.00030.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gates, G. J. (2010). Sexual minorities in the 2008 General Social Survey: Coming out and demographic characteristics. Los Angeles, CA: The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ge, X., Natsuaki, M. N., & Conger, R. D. (2006). Trajectories of depressive symptoms and stressful life events among male and female adolescents in divorced and nondivorced families. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 253–273. doi:10.1014/S0954579406060147.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goodenow, C., Szalacha, L. A., & Westheimer, K. (2006). School support groups, other school factors, and the safety of sexual minority adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 573–589. doi:10.1002/pits.20173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harris, K. M., Halpern, C. T., Whitsel, E., Hussey, J., Tabor, J., Entzel, P., & Udry, J. R. (2009). The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health: Research design [WWW document]. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/design.

  • Hatzenbuehler, M. L. (2009). How does sexual minority stigma “get under the skin”? A psychological mediation framework. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 707–730. doi:10.1037/a0016441.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Birkett, M., Van Wagenen, A., & Meyer, I. H. (2014). Protective school climates and reduced risk for suicide ideation in sexual minority youths. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 279–286.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Corbin, W. R., & Fromme, K. (2008). Trajectories and determinants of alcohol use among LGB young adults and their heterosexual peers: Results from a prospective study. Developmental Psychology, 44, 81–90. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.44.1.81.Trajectories.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hatzenbuehler, M. L., McLaughlin, K. A., Keyes, K. M., & Hasin, D. S. (2010). The impact of institutional discrimination on psychiatric disorders in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: A prospective study. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 452–459. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.168815.

  • Institute of Medicine. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jung, T., & Wickrama, K. A. S. (2008). An introduction to latent class growth analysis and growth mixture modeling. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 302–317. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00054.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Katz-Wise, S. L. (2014). Sexual fluidity in young adult women and men: Associations with sexual orientation and sexual identity development. Psychology & Sexuality. doi:10.1080/19419899.2013.876445.

    Google Scholar 

  • Katz-Wise, S. L., Calzo, J. P., Li, G., & Pollitt, A. (2015). Same data, different perspectives: What is at stake? Response to Savin-Williams and Joyner (2014a). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 15–19.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Katz-Wise, S. L., & Hyde, J. S. (2012). Victimization experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sex Research, 49, 142–167. doi:10.1080/00224499.2011.637247.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • King, M., Semlyen, J., Tai, S. S., Killaspy, H., Osborn, D., Popelyuk, D., & Nazareth, I. (2008). A systematic review of mental disorder, suicide, and deliberate self harm in lesbian, gay and bisexual people. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 1–17. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-8-70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Levine, H. (1997). A further exploration of the lesbian identity development process and its measurement. Journal of Homosexuality, 34, 67–76. doi:10.1300/J082v34n02_03.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Li, G., Katz-Wise, S. L., & Calzo, J. P. (2014). The unjustified doubt of add health studies on the health disparities of non-heterosexual adolescents: Comment on Savin-Williams and Joyner (2014). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43, 1–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lo, Y., Mendell, N. R., & Rubin, D. B. (2001). Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika, 88, 767–778.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marshal, M. P., Dietz, L. J., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., Smith, H. A., McGinley, J., et al. (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49, 115–123.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marshal, M. P., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., King, K. M., Miles, J., Gold, M. A., et al. (2008). Sexual orientation and adolescent substance use: A meta-analysis and methodological review. Addiction, 103, 546–556. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02149.x.Sexual.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marshal, M. P., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., & Thompson, A. L. (2009). Individual trajectories of substance use in lesbian, gay and bisexual youth and heterosexual youth. Addiction, 104, 974–981. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02531.x.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marshal, M. P., King, K. M., Stepp, S. D., Hipwell, A., Smith, H., Chung, T., et al. (2012). Trajectories of alcohol and cigarette use among sexual minority and heterosexual girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 97–99. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.05.008.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matthews, D. D., Blosnich, J. R., Farmer, G. W., & Adams, B. J. (2014). Operational definitions of sexual orientation and estimates of adolescent health risk behaviors. LGBT Health, 1, 42–49. doi:10.1089/lgbt.2013.0002.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McCabe, S. E., Bostwick, W. B., Hughes, T. L., West, B. T., & Boyd, C. J. (2010). The relationship between discrimination and substance use disorders among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1946–1952. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.163147.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McCabe, S. E., Hughes, T. L., Bostwick, W. B., & Boyd, C. J. (2005). Assessment of difference in dimensions of sexual orientation: Implications for substance use research in a college-age population. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66, 620–629.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McCabe, S. E., Hughes, T. L., Bostwick, W. B., West, B. T., & Boyd, C. J. (2009). Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States. Addiction, 104, 1333–1345. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02596.x.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McCabe, S. E., West, B. T., Hughes, T. L., & Boyd, C. J. (2013). Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: Results from a national survey. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44, 4–12. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2012.01.007.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McLaughlin, K. A., Costello, E. J., Leblanc, W., Sampson, N. A., & Kessler, R. C. (2012). Socioeconomic status and adolescent mental disorders. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 1742–1750. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300477.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, I. H. (2007). Social stressors. In I. H. Meyer & M. E. Northridge (Eds.), The health of sexual minorities: Public health perspectives on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations (pp. 674–697). New York, NY: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, S., Lansford, J. E., Costanzo, P., Malone, P. S., Golonka, M., & Killeya-Jones, L. A. (2009). Early adolescent romantic partner status, peer standing, and problem behaviors. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 29, 839–861. doi:10.1177/0272431609332665.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Morris, J. F. (1997). Lesbian coming out as a multidimensional process. Journal of Homosexuality, 33, 1–22. doi:10.1300/J082v33n02_01.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mustanski, B., Van Wagenen, A., Birkett, M., Eyster, S., & Corliss, H. L. (2014). Identifying sexual orientation health disparities in adolescents: Analysis of pooled data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 211–217.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide, 7th ed. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

  • Muthén, B. O., & Muthén, L. K. (2000). Integrating person-centered and variable-centered analyses: Growth mixture modeling with latent trajectory classes. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24, 882–891.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Needham, B. L. (2012). Sexual attraction and trajectories of mental health and substance use during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 179–190. doi:10.1007/s10964-011-9729-4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Newcomb, M. E., Heinz, A. J., & Mustanski, B. (2012). Examining risk and protective factors for alcohol use in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: A longitudinal multilevel analysis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 783–793.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2010). Internalized homophobia and internalizing mental health problems: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 1019–1029. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.07.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Poteat, V. P., Aragon, S. R., Espelage, D. L., & Koenig, B. W. (2009). Psychosocial concerns of sexual minority youth: Complexity and caution in group differences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 196–201. doi:10.1037/a0014158.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. doi:10.1177/014662167700100306.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reed, E., Prado, G., Matsumoto, A., & Amaro, H. (2010). Alcohol and drug use and related consequences among gay, lesbian and bisexual college students: Role of experiencing violence, feeling safe on campus, and perceived stress. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 168–171. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.09.005.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Riolo, S. A., Nguyen, T. A., Greden, J. F., & King, C. A. (2005). Prevalence of depression by race/ethnicity: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 998–1000. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.047225.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Robinson-Cimpian, J. P. (2014). Inaccurate estimation of disparities due to mischievous responders several suggestions to assess conclusions. Educational Researcher, 43, 171–185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosario, M., Hunter, J., Maguen, S., Gwadz, M., & Smith, R. (2001). The coming-out process and its adaptational and health-related associations among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: Stipulation and exploration of a model. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29, 133–160.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rosario, M., Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Hunter, J., Exner, T. M., Gwadz, M., & Keller, A. M. (1996). The psychosexual development of urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The Journal of Sex Research, 33, 113–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., Hunter, J., & Braun, L. (2006). Sexual identity development among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: Consistency and change over time. Journal of Sex Research, 43, 46–58. doi:10.1080/00224490609552298.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, S. T., Driscoll, A. K., & Truong, N. (2002). Adolescent same-sex romantic attractions and relationships: Implications for substance use and abuse. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 198–202. doi:10.2105/AJPH.92.2.198.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, S. T., Everett, B. G., Rosario, M., & Birkett, M. (2014a). Indicators of victimization and sexual orientation among adolescents: Analyses from youth risk behaviors surveys. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 256–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, S. T., Kosciw, J., Horn, S., & Saewyc, E. (2010). Safe schools policy for LGBTQ students. Social Policy Report, 24(4), 1–17. Retrieved from Society for Research in Child Development. http://www.srcd.org/sites/default/files/documents/spr_24_4_final.pdf

  • Russell, S. T., & Toomey, R. B. (2012). Men’s sexual orientation and suicide: Evidence for U.S. adolescent-specific risk. Social Science and Medicine, 74, 523–529. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.07.038.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, S. T., & Toomey, R. B. (2013). Risk and protective factors for suicidal thoughts among sexual minority youth: Evidence from the Add Health Study. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 17, 132–149. doi:10.1080/19359905.2012.753398.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, S. T., Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., & Diaz, R. M. (2014b). Being out at school: The implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84, 635–643. doi:10.1037/ort0000037.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Saewyc, E. M. (2011). Research on adolescent sexual orientation: Development, health disparities, stigma, and resilience. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 256–272. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00727.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saewyc, E. M., Bauer, G. R., Skay, C. L., Bearinger, L. H., Resnick, M. D., Reis, E., & Murphy, A. (2004). Measuring sexual orientation in adolescent health surveys: Evaluation of eight school-based surveys. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 345.e1–345.e15. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.06.002

  • Savin-Williams, R. C., & Cohen, K. (2007). Development of same-sex attracted youth. In I. H. Meyer & M. Northridge (Eds.), The health of sexual minorities: Public health perspectives on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations (pp. 27–47). New York, NY: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Savin-Williams, R. C., & Diamond, L. M. (2000). Sexual identity trajectories among sexual-minority youths: Gender comparisons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 607–627.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Savin-Williams, R. C., & Joyner, K. (2014a). The dubious assessment of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents of Add Health. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43, 413–422.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Savin-Williams, R. C., & Joyner, K. (2014b). The Politicization of gay youth health: Response to Li, Katz-Wise, and Calzo (2014). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43, 1027–1030.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Savin-Williams, R. C., & Ream, G. L. (2007). Prevalence and stability of sexual orientation components during adolescence and young adulthood. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 385–394. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9088-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Snapp, S., Burdge, H., Licona, A. C., Moody, R., & Russell, S. T. (2015). Students’ perspectives on LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum. Equity and Excellence in Education, 48, 1–17. doi:10.1080/10665684.2015.102561

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snapp, S., McGuire, J., Sinclair, K., Gabrion, K., & Russell, S. T. (in press). LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum: Why supportive curriculum matters. Sex Education.

  • StataCorp. (2013). Stata statistical software: Release 13. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.

    Google Scholar 

  • Talley, A. E., Hughes, T. L., Aranda, F., Birkett, M., & Marshal, M. P. (2014). Exploring alcohol-use behaviors among heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents: Intersections with age, sex, and race/ethnicity. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 295–303. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301627.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Talley, A. E., Sher, K. J., Steinley, D., Wood, P. K., & Littlefield, A. K. (2012). Patterns of alcohol use and consequences among empirically derived sexual minority subgroups. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 290–302.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Troiden, D. R. R. (1989). The formation of homosexual identities. Journal of Homosexuality, 17, 43–74.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ueno, K. (2010). Same-sex experience and mental health during the transition between adolescence and young adulthood. The Sociological Quarterly, 51, 484–510.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Drs. Ming Cui and John Taylor for their help in developing this project and to the reviewers for their insightful and helpful comments. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SMA-1401836.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest.

Author contributions

The manuscript is based off the dissertation work of JF who drafted the manuscript and performed the statistical analyses. KP assisted JF in conceptualizing the project, research questions, and study design. KP also contributed revisions to the preliminary and final manuscripts. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jessica N. Fish.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fish, J.N., Pasley, K. Sexual (Minority) Trajectories, Mental Health, and Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Study of Youth as They Transition to Adulthood. J Youth Adolescence 44, 1508–1527 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0280-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0280-6

Keywords

Navigation