Prospective Relationships Between Sleep Problems and Substance Use, Internalizing and Externalizing Problems
- 1k Downloads
While research has shown that sleep problems and substance use are reciprocally associated in adults, much less is known about this association in early adolescence. The main aim of the current longitudinal study was to explore bidirectional relationships between sleep problems, substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems in young adolescents. A prospective design was used incorporating two waves (approximately 1 year interval). A total of 555 young adolescents (290 females, M age = 13.96) participated in this study. All participants completed self-report measures in classrooms during regular school hours (questionnaires about sleep quality and sleep hygiene were used to measure sleep problems). The results indicated that sleep problems predicted changes in substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems over time, but problem behaviours did not predict changes in sleep problems, adjusted for gender, age and puberty. One exception was that alcohol use negatively predicted changes in sleep problems. This study suggests that sleep problems are important precursors of substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence.
KeywordsSleep problems Substance use Internalizing problems Externalizing problems Early adolescence
The work was performed when the first author was affiliated with the Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. This institute also provided the financial support for this work.
SP was involved in the design of the study, the coordination of the study, conducted the measurements, ran the statistical analyses, interpreted data and wrote the draft of the manuscript; WB was involved in the design of the study, the coordination of the study, ran the statistical analyses, interpreted data and wrote the draft of the manuscript; HV was involved in the design of the study, the coordination of the study, interpreted data and wrote the draft of the manuscript; RD was involved in the design of the study, interpreted data and wrote the draft of the manuscript; RW was involved in the design of the study, the coordination of the study, interpreted data and wrote the draft of the manuscript; RE was involved in the design of the study, the coordination of the study, interpreted data and wrote the draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict of interest
None of the authors declares a conflict of interest.
- Agrawal, A., Sartor, C. E., Lynskey, M. T., Grant, J. D., Pergadia, M. L., Grucza, R., et al. (2009). Evidence for an interaction between age at first drink and genetic influences on DSM-IV alcohol dependence symptoms. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 33(12), 2047–2056.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brower, K. J. (2001). Alcohol’s effects on sleep in alcoholics. Alcohol Research & Health, 25(2), 110–125.Google Scholar
- Fillmore, M. T., & Vogel-Sprott, M. (2006). Acute effects of alcohol and other drugs on automatic and intentional control. Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction, pp 293–306.Google Scholar
- Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., Eley, T. C., Moffitt, T. E., O’Connor, T. G., & Poulton, R. (2005). Prospective longitudinal associations between persistent sleep problems in childhood and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(2), 157–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hahn, C., Cowell, J. M., Wiprzycka, U. J., Goldstein, D., Ralph, M., Hasher, L., et al. (2012). Circadian rhythms in executive function during the transition to adolescence: The effect of synchrony between chronotype and time of day. Developmental Science, 15(3), 408–416.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnson, E. O., Roth, T., Schultz, L., & Breslau, N. (2006). Epidemiology of DSM-IV insomnia in adolescence: Lifetime prevalence, chronicity, and an emergent gender difference. Pediatrics, 117(247), 256.Google Scholar
- Mayes, S. D., Calhoun, S. L., Bixler, E. O., Vgontzas, A. N., Mahr, F., Hillwig-Garcia, J., et al. (2009). ADHD subtypes and comorbid anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder: Differences in sleep problems. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(3), 328–337.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén. L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2007). Mplus user’s guide. 5th edn. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Pelayo, R. P., Thorpy, M. J., & Glovinsky, P. (1998). Prevalence of delayed sleep phase syndrome among adolescents. Sleep Research, 17, 391.Google Scholar
- Roehrs, T., Carskadon, M. A., Dement, W. C., & Roth, T. (2005). Daytime sleepiness and alertness. In: M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, C. Dement, (Eds.), Principle and practice of sleep medicine, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, pp. 39–51.Google Scholar
- Teunissen, H. A., Adelman, C. B., Prinstein, M. J., Spijkerman, R., Poelen, E. A., Engels, R. C., et al. (2011). The interaction between pubertal timing and peer popularity for boys and girls: An integration of biological and interpersonal perspectives on adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39(3), 413–423.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thush, C., Wiers, R. W., Ames, S. L., Grenard, J. L., Sussman, S., & Stacy, A. W. (2008). Interactions between implicit and explicit cognition and working memory capacity in the prediction of alcohol use in at-risk adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 94(1–3), 116–124.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wiers, R. W., Bartholow, B. D., van den Wildenberg, E., Thush, C., Engels, R. C., Sher, K. J., et al. (2007). Automatic and controlled processes and the development of addictive behaviors in adolescents: A review and a model. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 86(2), 263–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar