A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking
- 1.4k Downloads
Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively.
KeywordsAdolescence Friendship Social networks Smoking Peer influence Stochastic Actor-Based models Parental monitoring
Grant #1 R21 DA031152-01A1, Cascades of Network Structure and Function: Pathways to Adolescent Substance Use. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Health, administered through the Program in Public Health, UC Irvine.
CML conceived of the study and took the lead in writing the article; CW conducted all study analyses and co-wrote the Methods and Results sections with JRH; CTB aided in data analysis, study conception, and in writing the article; RJ conducted all tasks related to data management and assisted in writing the article; DST aided in study conception and measurement; and JRH aided in the conception of the study, and had a significant role in writing, measurement issues, and data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
- Abel, G., Plumridge, L., & Graham, P. (2002). Peers, networks or relationships: Strategies for understanding social dynamics as determinants of smoking behaviour. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 9(4), 325–338.Google Scholar
- Allen, J. P., Porter, M. R., & McFarland, F. C. (2006). Leaders and followers in adolescent close friendships: Susceptibility to peer influence as a predictor of risky behavior, friendship instability, and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 155–172.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1977b). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss (Vol. 1). New York: Basic.Google Scholar
- Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Coleman, J. S. (1961). The adolescent society: the social life of the teenager and its impact on education. New York, NY: The Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
- Handcock, M. S. (2002). Missing data for social networks.Google Scholar
- Harris, K. M., Halpern, C. T., Whitsel, E., Hussey, J., Tabor, J., Entzel, P., & Udry, J. R. (2009). The national longitudinal study of adolescent health: Research design. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/design.
- Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Homans, G. C. (1974). Social behavior: Its elementary forms (2nd ed.). New York: Harcourt, Brace & World Inc.Google Scholar
- Kelly, J. A., St. Lawrence, J. S., Diaz, Y. E., Stevenson, L. Y., Hauth, A. C., Brasfield, T. L. et al. (1991). HIV risk behavior reduction following intervention with key opinion leaders of population: An experimental analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 81(2), 168–171.Google Scholar
- Kobus, K. (2003). Peers and adolescent smoking. Addiction, 98(Suppl s1), 37–55.Google Scholar
- Lazarsfeld, P. F., & Merton, R. K. (1954). Friendship as a social process: A substantive and methodological analysis. In M. Berger, T. Abel, & C. H. Page (Eds.), Freedom and control in modern society (pp. 18–66). New York, NY: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
- Leeuw, R. N. H. D., Scholte, R. H. J., Harakeh, Z., Leeuwe, J. F. J. V., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2008). Parental smoking-specific communication, adolescents’ smoking behavior and friendship selection. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 1229–1241.Google Scholar
- Nye, F. I. (1958). Family relationships and delinquent behavior. New York, NY: John Wiley.Google Scholar
- Parke, R. D., & Bhavnagri, N. P. (1989). Parents as managers of children’s peer relationships. In D. Belle (Ed.), Children’s social networks and social supports (pp. 241–259). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Parke, R. D., & Ladd, G. (1992). Family-peer relationships. Hillsdale, NY: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Ripley, R. M., Snijders, T. A. B., Boda, Z., Vörös, A., & Preciado, P. (2014). Manual for SIENA version 4.0 (version February 17, 2014). http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/siena/.
- Savin-Williams, R. C., & Berndt, T. J. (1990). In S. S. Feldman & G. R. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 277–307). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Snijders, T. A. B. (2011). Network Dynamics. In J. Scott & P. J. Carrington (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of social network analysis (pp. 501–513). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
- Sutherland, E. H., & Cressey, D. R. (1970). Criminology (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
- Younisis, J. (1980). Parents and peers in social development: A Sullivan-Piaget perspective. Chicago, IL: Univeristy of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Youniss, J., & Smollar, J. (1985). Adolescent relations with mothers, fathers, and friends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar