Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 662–674 | Cite as

The Association Between Cyber Victimization and Subsequent Cyber Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Peer Rejection

Empirical Research

Abstract

Adolescents experience various forms of strain in their lives that may contribute jointly to their engagement in cyber aggression. However, little attention has been given to this idea. To address this gap in the literature, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of peer rejection on the relationship between cyber victimization at Time 1 (T1) and subsequent cyber aggression at Time 2 (T2; 6 months later) among 261 (150 girls) 6th, 7th, and 8th graders. Our findings indicated that both peer rejection and cyber victimization were related to T2 peer-nominated and self-reported cyber aggression, both relational and verbal, after controlling for gender and T1 cyber aggression. Furthermore, T1 cyber victimization was related more strongly to T2 peer-nominated and self-reported cyber aggression at higher levels of T1 peer rejection. These results extend previous findings regarding the relationship between peer rejection and face-to-face aggressive behaviors to the cyber context. In addition, our findings underscore the importance of utilizing multiple methods, such as peer-nomination and self-report, to assess cyber aggression in a school setting.

Keywords

Longitudinal Cyberbullying Cyber aggression Peer nomination Peer rejection Cyber victimization Adolescent 

References

  1. Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Ang, R. P., & Goh, D. H. (2010). Cyberbullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(4), 387–397. doi:10.1007/s10578-010-0176-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Badaly, D., Schwartz, D., & Gorman, A. (2012). Social status, perceived social reputations, and perceived dyadic relationships in early adolescence. Social Development, 212(3), 482–500. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00646.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnow, S., Lucht, M., & Freyberger, H. (2005). Correlates of aggressive and delinquent conduct problems in adolescence. Aggressive Behavior, 31(1), 24–39. doi:10.1002/ab.20033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauman, S. (2010). Cyberbullying in a rural intermediate school: An exploratory study. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 30(6), 803–833. doi:10.1177/0272431609350927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bellmore, A., Jiang, X., & Juvonen, J. (2010). Utilizing peer nominations in middle school: A longitudinal comparison between complete classroom-based and random list methods. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(2), 538–550. doi:10.1111/j.153-7795.2010.00640.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berson, I. R., Berson, M. J., & Ferron, J. (2002). Emerging risks of violence in the digital age: Lessons for educators from an online study of adolescent girls in the United States. Journal of School Violence, 1(2), 51–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boneva, B., Quinn, A., Kraut, R., Kiesler, S., & Sklovski, I. (2006). Teenage communication in the instant messaging era. In R. Brynin & S. Kiesler (Eds.), Information technology at home (pp. 612–672). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Doyle, A. B., Markiewicz, D., & Bukowski, W. M. (2002). Boyfriends, girlfriends, and same-sex peers: Relations to early adolescents’ emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 48(1), 77–103. doi:10.1353/mpq.2002.0001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calvete, E., Orue, I., Estévez, A., Villardón, L., & Padilla, P. (2010). Cyberbullying in adolescents: Modalities and aggressors’ profile. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 1128–1135. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coie, J. D., Lochman, J. E., Terry, R., & Hyman, C. (1992). Predicting early adolescent disorder from childhood aggression and peer rejection. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(5), 783–792. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.60.5.783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66(3), 710–722. doi:10.2307/1131945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crick, N. R., Grotpeter, J. K., & Bigbee, M. A. (2002). Relationally and physically aggressive children’s intent attributions and feelings of distress for relational and instrumental peer provocations. Child Development, 73(4), 1134–1142. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dehue, F., Bolman, C., & Vollink, T. (2008). Cyberbullying: Youngster’s experiences and parental perception. CyberPsychology Behavior & Social Networking, 11(2), 217–232. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dempsey, A., Sulkowski, M., Dempsey, J., & Storch, E. (2011). Has cyber technology produced a new group of peer aggressors? CyberPsychology Behavior & Social Networking, 14(5), 297–302. doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeRosier, M. E., & Mercer, S. H. (2009). Perceived behavioral atypicality as a predictor of social rejection and peer victimization: Implications of emotional adjustment and academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 46(4), 375–387. doi:10.1002/pits.20382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DeVoe, J., & Murphy, C. (2011). Student reports of bullying and cyber-bullying: Results from the 2009 school crime supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Retrieved from: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2011336.
  18. Erdur-Baker, Ö. (2009). Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender, and frequently and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools. New Media & Society, 12(1), 109–125. doi:10.1177/1461444809341260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Espelage, D. L. (2002). Bullying in early adolescence: The role of the peer group. ERIC Digest. Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED471912).Google Scholar
  20. Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K. J., & Wolak, J. (2005). Online victimization: What youth tell us. In S. W. Cooper, R. J. Estes, A. P. Giardino, N. D. Kellogg, & V. I. Vieth (Eds.), Medical, legal, and social science aspects of child sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of pornography, prostitution, and Internet crimes (Vol. 1, pp. 437–467). St. Louis: GW Medical Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Fite, P. J., Colder, C. R., Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2007). Pathways from proactive and reactive aggression to substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21(3), 355–364. doi:10.1037/0893.164X.21.3.355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2009). Traditional bullying and cyberbullying: Identification of risk groups for adjustment problems. Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 205–213. doi:10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Graham, S., & Juvonen, J. (1998). Self-blame and peer victimization in middle school: An attributional analysis. Developmental Psychology, 34(3), 587–599. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.34.3.587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grigg, D. W. (2010). Cyber-aggression: Definition and concept of cyberbullying. Australian Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 20(2), 143–156. doi:10.1375/ajgc.20.2.143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hanish, L. D., & Guerra, N. G. (2000). Predictors of peer victimization among urban youth. Social Development, 9(4), 521–543. doi:10.1111/1467-9507.00141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hemphill, S., Kotevski, A., Tollit, M., Smith, R., Herrenkohl, T., Toumbourou, J., et al. (2012). Longitudinal predictors of cyber and traditional bullying perpetration in Australian secondary school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(1), 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.11.019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. (2009). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Hodges, E. V. E., & Perry, D. G. (1999). Personal and interpersonal consequences of victimization by peers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(4), 677–685. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.76.4.677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ialongo, N. S., Vaden-Kierman, N., & Kellam, S. (1998). Early peer rejection and aggression: Longitudinal relations with adolescent behavior. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 10(2), 199–213. doi:10.1023/B:JODD.0000036976.48023.a6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. i-SAFE America Inc. (2004). Cyber Bullying: Statistics and tips. Stop Bullying Now. Retrieved from http://www.isafe.org/channels/sub.php?ch=op&sub_id=media_cyber_bullying.
  31. Jennings, W., & Komro, K. (2011). A longitudinal examination of the relationship between physical aggression and violent victimization among urban minority Chicago youth and young adults. The Open Family Studies Journal, 4(1), 68–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jerome, L., & Segal, A. (2003). Bullying by internet. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(7), 751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Juvonen, J., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2001). Self-views and peer perceptions of victim status among early adolescents. In J. Juvonen & S. Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized (pp. 105–124). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  34. König, A., Gollwitzer, M., & Steffgen, G. (2010). Cyberbullying as an act of revenge? Australian Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 20(2), 210–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S22–S30. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S. P., & Agatston, P. W. (2008). Cyber bullying—bullying in the digital age. Hoboken: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kupersmidt, J. B., & Coie, J. D. (1990). Preadolescent peer status, aggression, and school adjustment as predictors of externalizing problems in adolescence. Child Development, 61(5), 1350–1362. doi:10.2307/1130747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lenhart, A., Purcell, K., Smith, A., & Zickuhr, K. (2010). Social media & mobile internet use among teens and young adults. Retrieved from: http://web.pewinternet.org/~/media/files/reports/2010/pip_social_media_and_young_adults_report_final_with_toplines.pdf.
  39. Li, Q. (2006). Cyberbullying in schools: A research of gender differences. School Psychology International, 27(2), 157–170. doi:10.1177/0143034306064547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li, Q. (2008). A cross-cultural comparison of adolescents’ experience related to cyberbullying. Educational Research, 50(3), 223–234. doi:10.1080/00131880802309333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. London, B., Downey, G., Bonica, C., & Paltin, I. (2007). Social causes and consequences of rejection sensitivity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17(3), 481–506. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2007.00531.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. López, E. E., Olaizola, J. H., Ferrer, B. M., & Ochoa, G. M. (2006). Aggressive and nonaggressive rejected students: An analysis of their differences. Psychology in the Schools, 43(3), 387–400. doi:10.1002/pits.20152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mesch, G. S. (2009). Parental mediation, online activities, and cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(4), 387–393. doi:10.1089/cpb.2009.0068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nesdale, D., & Duff, A. (2011). Social identity, peer group rejection, and young children’s reactive, displaced, and proactive aggression. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 823–841. doi:10.1111/j.2044-835X.2010.02012.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Newcomb, A. F., Bukowski, W. M., & Pattee, L. (1993). Children’s peer relations: A meta-analytic review of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average sociometric status. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 99–128. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Orobio de Castro, B., Slot, N. W., Bosch, J. D., Koops, W., & Veerman, J. W. (2003). Negative feelings exacerbates hostile attributions of intent in highly aggressive boys. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(1), 57–66. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3201_06.Google Scholar
  47. Ostrov, J. M. (2008). Forms of aggression and peer victimization during early childhood: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(3), 311–322. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9179-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Parkhurst, J. T., & Asher, S. R. (1992). Peer rejection in middle school: Subgroup differences in behavior, loneliness, and interpersonal concerns. Developmental Psychology, 28(2), 231–241. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.28.2.231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2011). Traditional and nontraditional bullying among youth: A test of general strain theory. Youth & Society, 43(2), 727–751. doi:10.1177/0044118X10366951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Perry, D. G., Kusel, S. J., & Perry, L. C. (1988). Victims of peer aggression. Developmental Psychology, 24(6), 807–814. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.24.6.1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pettit, G. S., Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Dodge, K. A., & Bates, J. E. (2010). Domain specificity in relationship history, social-information processing, and violent behavior in early adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2), 190–200. doi:10.1037/a0017991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pornari, C. D., & Wood, J. (2010). Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students: The role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies. Aggressive Behavior, 36(2), 81–94. doi:10.1002/ab.20336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Prinstein, M. J., & La Greca, A. M. (2004). Childhood peer rejection and aggression as predictors of adolescent girls’ externalizing and health risk behaviors: A 6-year longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(1), 103–112. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.72.1.103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Putallaz, M., Grimes, C., Foster, K., Kupersmidt, J., Coie, J., & Dearing, K. (2007). Overt and relational aggression and victimization: Multiple perspectives within the school setting. Journal of School Psychology, 45(5), 523–547. doi:10.1016/jsp.2007.05.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Raskauskas, J. (2010). Text-bullying: Associations with traditional bullying and depression among New Zealand adolescents. Journal of School Violence, 9(1), 74–97. doi:10.1080/15388220903185605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Raskauskas, J., & Stoltz, A. (2007). Involvement in traditional and electronic bullying among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 43(3), 564–575. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.43.3.564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Reijntjes, A., Thomaes, S., Kamphuis, J., Bushman, B., de Castro, B., & Teich, M. (2011). Explaining the paradoxical rejection-aggression link: The mediating effects of hostile intent attributions, anger, and decreases in state self-esteem on peer rejection-induced aggression in youth. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(7), 955–963. doi:10.1177/04146167211410247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rivers, I., & Noret, N. (2010). Ih8 u: Findings from a five-year study of text and email bullying. British Educational Research Journal, 36(4), 643–671. doi:10.1080/01411920903071918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Salmivalli, C., & Isaacs, J. (2005). Prospective relations among victimization, rejection, friendlessness, and children’s self- and peer-perceptions. Child Development, 76(6), 1161–1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sanders, J. (2009, August). Cyberbullies: Their motives, characteristics, and types of bullying. Presentation at the XIV. European Conference of Developmental Psychology, Vilnius, Lithuania.Google Scholar
  61. Schad, M. M., Szwedo, D. E., Antonishak, J., Hare, A., & Allen, J. P. (2008). The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships: Predictions from peer pressure and links to psychosocial functioning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(3), 346–358. doi:10.1007/s10964-007-9226-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schwartz, D., Gorman Hopmeyer, A., Nakamoto, J., & McKay, T. (2006). Popularity, social acceptance and aggression in adolescent peer groups: Links with academic performance and school attendance. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1116–1127. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.6.1116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ševcíková, A., & Šmahel, D. (2009). Online harassment and cyberbullying in the Czech Republic: Comparison across age groups. Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 227–229. doi:10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(2), 147–154. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00611.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(4), 376–385. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01846.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sontag, L. M., Clemans, K. H., Graber, J. A., & Lyndon, S. T. (2011). Traditional and cyber aggressors and victims: A comparison of psychosocial characteristics. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(4), 392–404. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9575-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Soper, D. (2010). Interaction! Unpublished copyrighted software. Retrieved from httpc:www.danielsoper.com.
  68. Vandebosch, H., & van Cleemput, K. (2008). Defining cyberbullying: A qualitative research into the perceptions of youngsters. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(4), 499–503. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Munniksma, A., & Dijkstra, J. (2010). The complex relation between bullying, victimization, acceptance, and rejection: Giving special attention to status, affect, and sex differences. Child Development, 81(2), 480–486. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624-2009.01411.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vitaro, F., Boivin, M., & Tremblay, R. (2007). Peers and violence: A two-sided developmental perspective. In: D. J. Flannery, Alexander T., & Waldman, D. (Eds.). The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression (pp. 361–387). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Volling, B. L., MacKinnon-Lewis, C., Rabiner, D., & Baradaran, L. P. (1993). Children’s social competence and sociometric status: Further exploration of aggression, social withdrawal, and peer rejection. Development and Psychopathology, 5(3), 459–483. doi:10.1017/S0954579400004521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wallace, L. H., Patchin, J. W., & May, J. D. (2005). Reactions of victimized youth: Strain as an explanation of school delinquency. Western Criminology Review, 6(1), 104–116.Google Scholar
  73. Werner, N. E., & Crick, N. R. (2004). Maladaptive peer relationships and the development of relational and physical aggression during middle childhood. Social Development, 13(4), 495–514. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2004.00280.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Williams, K. R., & Guerra, N. G. (2007). Prevalence and predictors of internet bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S14–S21. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wright, M. F., & Li, Y. (2012). Kicking the digital dog: A longitudinal investigation of young adults’ victimization and cyber displaced aggression. CyberPsychology Behavior and Social Networking, 15(9), 448–454. doi:10.1089/cyber.2012.0061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004). Online aggressors, victims, and aggressor/victims: A comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(7), 1308–1316. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00328.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yoon, J. S., Hughes, J. N., Cavell, T. A., & Thompson, B. (2000). Social cognitive differences between aggressive-rejected and aggressive-nonrejected children. Journal of School Psychology, 38(6), 551–570. doi:10.1016/S0022-4405(00)00052-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDePaul UniversityChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations