The changing nature of the transition to adulthood in western societies, such as the United States, may be extending the length of time parents are engaged in “parenting” activities. However, little is known about different approaches parents take in their interactions with their emerging-adult children. Hence, this study attempted to identify different clusters of parents based on the extent to which they exhibited both extremes of control (psychological control, punishment, verbal hostility, indulgence) and responsiveness (knowledge, warmth, induction, autonomy granting), and to examine how combinations of parenting were related to emerging adult children’s relational and individual outcomes (e.g. parent–child relationship quality, drinking, self-worth, depression). The data were collected from 403 emerging adults (M age = 19.89, SD = 1.78, range = 18–26, 62% female) and at least one of their parents (287 fathers and 317 mothers). Eighty-four percent of participants reported being European American, 6% Asian American, 4% African American, 3% Latino, and 4% reported being of other ethnicities. Data were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis, separately for mothers and fathers, and identified three similar clusters of parents which we labeled as uninvolved (low on all aspects of parenting), controlling-indulgent (high on both extremes of control and low on all aspects of responsiveness), and authoritative (high on responsiveness and low on control). A fourth cluster was identified for both mothers and fathers and was labeled as inconsistent for mothers (mothers were above the mean on both extremes of control and on responsiveness) and average for fathers (fathers were at the mean on all eight aspects of parenting). The discussion focuses on how each of these clusters effectively distinguished between child outcomes.
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The authors would like to acknowledge Carolyn McNamara Barry and Stephanie Madsen for their extensive help on Project READY. The authors also express appreciation to the instructors and students at all Project READY data collection sites for their assistance. We are grateful for the grant support of the Family Studies Center at Brigham Young University.
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Nelson, L.J., Padilla-Walker, L.M., Christensen, K.J. et al. Parenting in Emerging Adulthood: An Examination of Parenting Clusters and Correlates. J Youth Adolescence 40, 730–743 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9584-8
- Emerging adulthood
- Parental responsiveness/control