Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 38, Issue 9, pp 1172–1186 | Cite as

Street Ball, Swim Team and the Sour Cream Machine: A Cluster Analysis of Out of School Time Participation Portfolios

  • Ingrid Ann NelsonEmail author
  • Billie Gastic
Empirical Research

Abstract

Adolescents spend only a fraction of their waking hours in school and what they do with the rest of their time varies dramatically. Despite this, research on out-of-school time has largely focused on structured programming. The authors analyzed data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) to examine the out-of-school time activity portfolios of 6,338 high school sophomores, accounting for time spent in school clubs and sports as well as 17 other activities. The analytical sample was balanced with respect to sex and racially and ethnically diverse: 49% female, 67% White, 10% Latino, 10% African American, and 6% Asian and Pacific Islander. Approximately 76% of the sample attended public schools, 30% were in the highest socioeconomic quartile, and 20% were in the lowest socioeconomic quartile. The authors identified five distinct out-of-school time activity portfolios based on a cluster analysis. The demographic profiles of students by portfolio type differed significantly with respect to sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, school type and location. Students by portfolio type also differed significantly in terms of measures of academic success, school behavior, victimization and perceptions of school climate, controlling for covariates. These findings underscore the importance of more complex considerations of adolescents’ out-of-school time.

Keywords

Out-of-school time Activity portfolios Adolescents 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the following individuals for their comments on earlier versions of this work: anonymous reviewers, Rebecca London, Jon Norman, Jack Schneider, Karen Strobel, Sam Wineburg, and Sivan Zakai.

References

  1. Anderson-Butcher, D., Newsome, W. S., & Ferrari, T. M. (2003). Participation in boys and girls clubs and relationships to youth outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 31(1), 39–55. doi: 10.1002/jcop.10036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. (1993). How part-time work intensity relates to drug use, problem behavior, time use, and satisfaction among high school seniors: Are these consequences or merely correlates. Developmental Psychology, 29(2), 220–235. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.29.2.220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber, B. L., Eccles, J., & Stone, M. (2001). Whatever happened to the jock, the brain, and the princess? Young adult pathways linked to adolescent activity involvement and social identity. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 429–455. doi: 10.1177/0743558401165002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber, B. L., Stone, M., Hunt, J., & Eccles, J. (2005). Benefits of activity participation: The roles of identity affirmation and peer group norm sharing. In J. L. Mahoney, J. Eccles, & R. Larson (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 185–210). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Bartko, W. T., & Eccles, J. (2003). Adolescent participation in structured and unstructured activities: A person-oriented analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 233–241. doi: 10.1023/A:1023056425648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouffard, S. M., Wimer, C., Caronongan, P., Little, P. M. D., Dearing, E., & Simpkin, S. D. (2006). Demographic differences in patterns of youth out-of-school time activity participation. Journal of Youth Development, 1(1), 24–39.Google Scholar
  7. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. Westport: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  8. Broh, B. A. (2002). Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: Who benefits and why? Sociology of Education, 75(1), 69–95. doi: 10.2307/3090254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coleman, J. S. (1961). The adolescent society: The social life of the teenager and its impact on education. The Free Press of Glencoe, Inc.: New York.Google Scholar
  10. Cooper, H., Valentine, J., Nye, B., & Lindsay, J. (1999). Relationships between five after-school activities and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 369–378. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.91.2.369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crosnoe, R. (2001). The social world of male and female athletes in high school. Sociological Studies of Children and Youth, 8, 87–108. doi: 10.1016/S1537-4661(01)80006-4.Google Scholar
  12. Crosnoe, R. (2002). Academic and health related trajectories in adolescence: The intersection of gender and athletics. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 317–336. doi: 10.2307/3090207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crosnoe, R., Muller, C., & Frank, K. (2004). Peer context and the consequences of adolescent drinking. Social Problems, 51(2), 288–304. doi: 10.1525/sp.2004.51.2.288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Darling, N., Caldwell, L. L., & Smith, R. (2005). Participation in school-based extracurricular activities and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(1), 51–76.Google Scholar
  15. Eccles, J., Barber, B., Stone, M., & Hunt, J. (2003). Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. The Journal of Social Issues, 59(4), 865–889. doi: 10.1046/j.0022-4537.2003.00095.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feldman, A. F., & Matjasko, J. L. (2005). The role of school-based extracurricular activities in adolescent development: A comprehensive review and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 75(2), 159–210. doi: 10.3102/00346543075002159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. (2006a). Extracurricular involvement and adolescent adjustment: Impact of duration, number of activities, and breadth of participation. Applied Developmental Science, 10(3), 132–146. doi: 10.1207/s1532480xads1003_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. (2006b). Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations. Developmental Psychology, 42(4), 698–713. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.4.698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & DeMaris, A. (1993). The family and peer relations of black adolescents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55(2), 277–287. doi: 10.2307/352801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gordon, E. W., Bridglall, B. L., & Meroe, A. S. (2005). Supplementary education: The hidden curriculum of high academic achievement. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  21. Hall-Lande, J. A., Eisenberg, M. E., Christenson, S. L., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2007). Social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescence. Adolescence, 42(166), 265–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanson, S. L., & Kraus, R. S. (1998). Women, sports and science: Do female athletes have an advantage. Sociology of Education, 71, 93–110. doi: 10.2307/2673243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ingels, S. J., Burns, L. J., Chen, X., Cataldi, E. F., & Charleston, S. (2005). A profile of the American high school sophomore in 2002: Initial results from the base year of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  24. Ingels, S. J., Pratt, D. J., Rogers, J. E., Siegel, P. H., & Stutts, E. S. (2004). Education Longitudinal Study of 2002: Base year data file user’s manual (NCES 2004.405). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  25. Jordan, W. J., & Nettles, S. M. (2000). How students invest their time outside of school: Effects on school-related outcomes. Social Psychology of Education, 3, 217–243. doi: 10.1023/A:1009655611694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kao, G., & Tienda, M. (1995). Optimism and achievement: The educational performance of immigrant youth. Social Science Quarterly, 76(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  27. Kreager, D. A. (2004). Strangers in the halls: Isolation and delinquency in school networks. Social Forces, 83(1), 351–390. doi: 10.1353/sof.2004.0117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  29. Larson, R. (2001). How U.S. children and adolescents spend time: What it does (and doesn’t) tell us about their development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(5), 160–164. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Larson, R., & Verma, S. (1999). How children and adolescents spend time across the world: Work, play and developmental opportunities. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 701–736. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lauer, P., Akiba, M., Wilkerson, S., Apthorp, H., Snow, D., & Martin-Glenn, M. (2006). Out of school time programs: A meta-analysis of effects for at-risk students. Review of Educational Research, 76(2), 275–313. doi: 10.3102/00346543076002275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mahoney, J. L. (2000). School extracurricular participation as a moderator in the development of antisocial patterns. Child Development, 71, 502–516. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mahoney, J. L., & Cairns, R. B. (1997). Do extracurricular activities protect against early school drop out? Developmental Psychology, 33, 195–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., Eccles, J., & Lord, H. (2005). Organized activities as development contexts for children and adolescents. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development (pp. 3–22). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  35. Marsh, H. W., & Kleitman, S. (2002). Extracurricular school activities: The good, the bad and the nonlinear. Harvard Educational Review, 72(4), 464–514.Google Scholar
  36. McFarland, D. A., & Pals, H. (2005). Motives and contexts of identity change: A case for network effects. Social Psychology Quarterly, 68(4), 289–315.Google Scholar
  37. Mead, S. (2006). The truth about boys and girls. Washington, DC: Education Sector.Google Scholar
  38. Mortimer, J. (2003). Working and growing up in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. National Institute on Out-of-School Time. (2005). Pathways to success for youth: What counts in after school. Massachusetts after-school research study. Boston: Intercultural Center for Research in Education and National Institute on Out-of-School Time.Google Scholar
  40. Parker, J. S., & Benson, M. J. (2004). Parent-adolescent relations and adolescent functioning: Self-esteem, substance abuse, and delinquency. Adolescence, 39(155), 519–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rothstein, R. (2006). Reforms that could help narrow the achievement gap. San Francisco: WestEd.Google Scholar
  42. Schreiber, J. B., & Chambers, E. A. (2002). After-school pursuits, ethnicity and achievement for 8th and 10th grade students. The Journal of Educational Research, 96, 90–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Negative correlates of part-time employment during adolescence: Replication and elaboration. Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 304–313. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.27.2.304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thompson, D. R., Iachan, R., Overpeck, M., Ross, J. G., & Gross, L. A. (2006). School connectedness in the health behavior in school-aged children study: The role of student, school, and school neighborhood characteristics. The Journal of School Health, 76(7), 379–386. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2006.00129.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tracy, A. J., & Erkut, S. (2002). Gender and race patterns in the pathways from sports participation to self-esteem. Sociological Perspectives, 45, 445–455. doi: 10.1525/sop.2002.45.4.445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tyson, K., Darity, W., & Castellino, D. R. (2005). It’s not “A black thing”: Understanding the burden of acting white and other dilemmas of high achievement. American Sociological Review, 70(4), 582–605.Google Scholar
  47. Van Rossem, R., & Vermande, M. M. (2004). Classroom roles and school adjustment. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(4), 396–411.Google Scholar
  48. Wimer, C., Bouffard, S. M., Caronongan, P., Dearing, E., Simpkins, S., Little, P. M. D., et al. (2006). What are kids getting into these days? Demographic differences in youth out-of school time participation. Boston: Harvard Family Research Project.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.University of Massachusetts BostonBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations