Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 36, Issue 8, pp 1072–1085 | Cite as

Development and Validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families

  • Tiffany L. BrownEmail author
  • Ambika Krishnakumar
Original Paper


Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and ethnic socialization and to validate a new measure termed the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS). Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), findings from 218 African American adolescents (grades 9–12) support the multidimensional nature of racial and ethnic socialization. Results also indicate that racial and ethnic socialization are distinct constructs reflecting the utility of this instrument for African American youth.


African American parenting African American adolescents Confirmatory factor analysis Racial socialization Ethnic socialization Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Family and Child Studies, College of Education and Human ServicesMontclair State UniversityMontclairUSA
  2. 2.Department of Child and Family StudiesSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

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