Advertisement

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 34, Issue 6, pp 619–628 | Cite as

The Role of Sense of School Belonging and Gender in the Academic Adjustment of Latino Adolescents

  • Bernadette Sánchez
  • Yarí Colón
  • Patricia Esparza
Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the roles of sense of belonging and gender in the academic outcomes of urban, Latino adolescents. It was expected that sense of belonging would play a different role in males' and females' academic adjustment. Participants (N = 143) included mostly Mexican and Puerto Rican seniors from a large, urban high school. The academic outcomes assessed were grade point average, absenteeism, motivation, effort, and educational aspirations and expectations. As hypothesized, females consistently had more positive academic outcomes than males. Sense of school belonging significantly predicted academic outcomes, including academic motivation, effort, and absenteeism. Regression analyses did not show that gender explained differences in the relationship between sense of belonging and academic outcomes. Implications and future directions for research on urban Latino males and females are discussed.

Key Words

academic achievement sense of community gender Latino adolescents 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkinson, J. (1964). An Introduction to Motivation. Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ .Google Scholar
  2. Baumeister, R. F., and Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychol. Bull. 117(3): 497–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dewey, J. (1958). Experience and Education. MacMillan, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Eccles, J., Adler, T., Futterman, R., Goff, S., Kaczala, C., Meece, J., and Midgley, C. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. In Spence, J. (ed.), Achievement and Achievement Motives. Freeman, San Francisco, pp. 78–147.Google Scholar
  5. Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., and Adler, T. F. (1984). Grade-related changes in the school environment: Effects on achievement motivation. In Nicholls, J.G. (ed.), The Development of Achievement Motivation. JAI, Greenwich, CT.Google Scholar
  6. Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, W. D., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flannigan, C., and MacIver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage environment fit on young adolescents' experiences in schools and in families. Am. Psychol. 48: 90–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fine, M. (1991). Framing Dropouts: Notes on the Politics of an Urban Public High School. State University of New York, Albany.Google Scholar
  8. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  9. Gonzalez, R., and Padilla, A. M. (1997). The academic resilience of Mexican American high school students. Hispanic J. Behav. Sci. 19(3): 301–317.Google Scholar
  10. Goodenow, C. (1993a). Classroom belonging among early adolescent students: Relationships to motivation and achievement. J. Early Adolesc. 12(1): 21–43.Google Scholar
  11. Goodenow, C. (1993b). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychol. Sch. 30: 79–90.Google Scholar
  12. Goodenow, C., and Grady, K. E. (1993). The relationship of school belonging and friends' values to academic motivation among urban adolescent students. J. Exp. Educ. 62(1): 60–71.Google Scholar
  13. Grolnick, W. S., and Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children's self‐regulation and competence in school. J. Educ. Psychol. 81(2): 143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hagborg, W. (1998). An investigation of a brief membership of school membership. Adolescence 33(130): 461–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lewis, A. (2003). Race in the Schoolyard: Negotiating the Color Line in Classrooms and Communities, Piscataway, NJ, Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  16. López, E. J., Ehly, S., and Garcia-Vázquez, E. (2002). Acculturation, social support, and academic achievement of Mexican and Mexican American high school students: An exploratory study. Psychol. Sch. 39(3): 245–257.Google Scholar
  17. López, N. (2002). Rewriting race and gender high school lessons: Second-generation Dominicans in New York City. Teach. Coll. Rec. 104(6): 1187–1203.Google Scholar
  18. Marín, G., and Marín, B. V. O. (1991). Research with Hispanic populations. Applied Social Research Methods Series, 23. Sage, London.Google Scholar
  19. Marin, G., and Triandis, H. C. (1985). Allocentrism as an important characteristic of the behavior of Latin Americans and Hispanics. In Diaz-Guerrero, R. (ed.), Cross-cultural and National Studies in Social Psychology. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 85–104.Google Scholar
  20. Matute-Bianchi, M. E. (1991). Situational ethnicity and patterns of school performance among immigrant and nonimmigrant Mexican-descent students. In Gibson, M. A., and Ogbu, J. (eds.), Minority Status and Schooling: A Comparative Study of Immigrant and Involuntary Minorities. Garland, New York.Google Scholar
  21. McMillan, D. W., and Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. J. Community Psychol. 14: 6–23.Google Scholar
  22. Murdock, T. B., Anderman, L. H., and Hodge, S. A. (2000). Middle-grade predictors of students' motivation and behavior in high school. J. Adolesc. Res. 15(3): 327–351.Google Scholar
  23. Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students' need for belonging in the school community. Rev. Educ. Res. 70(3): 323–367.Google Scholar
  24. Pintrich, P. R., and De Gnest, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. J. Educ. Psychol. 82(1): 33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Qin-Hilliard, D. B. (2004). Segmented adaptation: Understanding the role of gender in immigrant students' educational experiences and expectations. In Todorova, I. L. G. (Chair), Social and Academic Adaptation of Immigrant Youth. Paper symposium presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  26. Reyes, O., Gillock, K., and Kobus, K. (1994). A longitudinal study of school adjustment in urban minority adolescents: Effects of a high school transition program. Am. J. Community Psychol. 22(3): 341–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Roeser, R., Midgley, C., and Urdan, T. C. (1996). Perception of the school psychological environment and early adolescents' psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging. J. Educ. Psychol. 88(3): 408–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rong, X. L., and Brown, F. (2001). The effects of immigrant generation and ethnicity on educational attainment among young African and Caribbean Blacks in the United States. Harv. Educ. Rev. 71(3): 536–565.Google Scholar
  29. Saunders, S., Davis, L., Williams, T., and Williams, J. H. (2004). Gender differences in self-perceptions and academic outcomes: A study of African American high school students. J. Youth Adolesc. 33(1): 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Smerdon, B. (2002). Students' perceptions of membership in their high schools. Sociol. Educ. 75(4): 287–305.Google Scholar
  31. Stevens, C. J., Puchtell, L. A., Ryu, S., and Mortimer, J. T. (1992). Adolescent work and boys' and girls' orientations to the future. Sociol. Q. 33(2): 153–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Triandis, H. C., McCusker, C., and Hui, C. H. (1990). Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 59: 1006–1020.Google Scholar
  33. U.S. Department of Education, NCES. (2005). The condition of education 2005. NCES 2005-094, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  34. Valdez, V., and Rodriguez, J. E. (2002). Statistics for Latino Majority Schools in the Chicago Public Schools: Part 1. Chicagoland Latino Educational Research Institute, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  35. Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive Schooling: U.S. Mexican Youth and the Politics of Caring. State University of New York Press, Albany, NY.Google Scholar
  36. Wojtkiewicz, R. A., and Donato, K. M. (1995). Hispanic educational attainment: The effects of family background. Soc. Forces 74(2): 559–574.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernadette Sánchez
    • 1
  • Yarí Colón
    • 2
  • Patricia Esparza
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDepaul UniversityChicago
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyDePaul University
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyDePaul University

Personalised recommendations