Skip to main content

Exotica in Context: Reconfiguring Prestige, Power and Wealth in the Southern African Iron Age

Abstract

Prestige goods, in various combinations and permutations, feature prominently in anthropological and archaeological templates of the emergence of social inequality and early state formation in premodern societies. In Africa, discussion of the contribution of prestige goods to the evolution of cultural behaviours such as class distinction and statehood has been conducted primarily through theoretical lenses that allocate significant weight to the proceeds of external long distance trade. The major outcome is that archaeologists have rarely paused to evaluate not just the definition of prestige goods but also the congruity between global ‘universals’ and African ‘particularities’. Using empirical evidence from the southern African historical and archaeological records, this paper seeks to evaluate the concept of prestige goods and to assess their contribution to the evolution of Iron Age (AD 200–1900) communities of different time periods, from locally centred positions. It reveals that the distribution, use and deposition of exotic imports in southern Africa is not compatible with the pattern suggested by the prestige goods model, and points towards their valuation as embedded within situational contexts of meaning. In fact, hinterland elites controlled neither the source nor the distribution of exotic goods from producer regions, making them a volatile source of power and prestige. While local elites used exotic imports when available, and imposed taxes on their citizens—payable in both local and external goods—land, cattle, religion and individual entrepreneurship were far more predictable and stable sources of prestige, wealth and power. This provides the basis for reassessing the development of complexity in the region and potentially contributes towards global debates on the impact of long-distance trade in the development of complex states.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. Abraham, D. P. (1960). The early political history of the kingdom of Mwene Mutapa (850–1589). In Historians in Tropical Africa. Proceedings of the Leverhulme Inter-Collegiate History conference held at the University of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, September 1960 (pp. 61–91).

  2. Ames, K. (2007). The archaeology of rank. In R. A. Bentley, H. D. G. Maschner, & C. Chippindale (Eds.), Handbook of archaeological theories (pp. 487–513). Lanham: AltaMira.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Antonites, A. (2013). Archaeological salt production at the Baleni spring, northeastern South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 68(198), 105–118.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Antonites, A. (2014). Glass beads from Mutamba: Patterns of consumption in thirteenth-century southern Africa. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 49(3), 411–428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Appadurai, A. (1988). The social life of things: Commodities in cultural perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Arnold, J. E. (1995). Social inequality, marginalization, and economic process. In T. D. Price & G. M. Feinman (Eds.), Foundations of social inequality (pp. 87–103). New York: Plenum.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  7. Axelson, E. (1969). Portuguese in South-east Africa, 1488–1530. New York: Longmans, Green.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Axelson, E. (1973). Congo to Cape: Early Portuguese explorers. London: Faber and Faber.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bandama, F., Moffett, A. J., Thondhlana, T. P., & Chirikure, S. (2016). The production, distribution and consumption of metals and alloys at Great Zimbabwe. Archaeometry, 58, 164–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Barker, G. (1978). Economic models for the Manekweni Zimbabwe. Mozambique, Azania, 13, 71–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Barnes, R., & Eicher, J. B. (Eds.). (1992). Dress and gender: Making and meaning in cultural contexts. New York: Berg.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Beach, D. (1998). Cognitive archaeology and imaginary history at Great Zimbabwe 1. Current Anthropology, 39(1), 47–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Beach, D., Bourdillon, M., Denbow, J., Hall, M., Lane, P., Pikirayi, I., et al. (1997). Review feature: ‘Snakes and crocodiles: Power and symbolism in ancient Zimbabwe’, by Thomas N. Huffman. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 52(166), 125–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Beach, D. N. (1980). The Shona and Zimbabwe, 900–1850: An outline of Shona history. London: Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Beach, D. N. (1983). Oral history and archaeology in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwean Prehistory, 9, 10.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Beach, D. N. (1994). A Zimbabwean past: Shona dynastic histories and oral traditions. Harare: Mambo Press.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bent, T. (1896). The ruined cities of Mashonaland. Bulawayo: Books of Rhodesia.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bhila, H. H. K. (1982). Trade and politics in a Shona Kingdom: The Manyika and their African and Portuguese neighbours, 1575–1902. Harlow: Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Blanton, R., & Feinman, G. (1984). The Mesoamerican world system. American Anthropologist, 86(3), 673–682.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Blanton, R. E., Feinman, G. M., Kowalewski, S. A., & Peregrine, P. N. (1996). A dual-processual theory for the evolution of Mesoamerican civilization. Current Anthropology, 37(1), 1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Bourdillon, M. F. C. (1952). The Shona peoples; An ethnography of the contemporary Shona, with special reference to their religion. Gweru: Mambo Press.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Brück, J., & Fontijn, D. (2013). The myth of the chief: Prestige goods, power and personhood in the European Bronze Age. In H. Fokkens & A. Harding (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the European Bronze Age (pp. 197–215). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Brumfiel, E. M., & Earle, T. K. (1987). Specialization, exchange, and complex societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Bryant, A. T. (1949). The Zulu people: As they were before the white man came. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Bullock, C. (1927). The Mashona. Cape Town: Juta.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Bvocho, G. (2005). Ornaments as social and chronological icons: A case study of southeastern Zimbabwe. Journal of Social Archaeology, 5(3), 409–424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Calabrese, J. A. (2000). Metals, ideology and power: The manufacture and control of materialised ideology in the area of the Limpopo—Shashe confluence, c. AD 900–1300. South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series, 8, 100–111.

  28. Calabrese, J. A. (2007). The emergence of social and political complexity in the ShashiLimpopo valley of southern Africa, AD 9001300: Ethnicity, class, and polity (BAR International Series 1617. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 69). Oxford: Archaeopress.

  29. Caton-Thompson, G. (1931). The Zimbabwe culture: Ruins and reactions. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Chakaipa, P. (1976). Pfumo reropa. Harare: Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Chanaiwa, D. (1972). Politics and long-distance trade in the Mwene Mutapa empire during the sixteenth century. The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 5(3), 424–435.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Chanaiwa, D. (1973). The Zimbabwe controversy: A case of colonial historiography (Vol. 8). Syracuse: Syracuse University.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Chapman, J. (2000). Fragmentation in archaeology: People, places and broken objects in the prehistory of South Eastern Europe. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Chaudhuri, K. N. (1985). Trade and civilisation in the Indian Ocean: An economic history from the rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  35. Childe, V. G. (1950). The urban revolution. Town Planning Review, 21(1), 3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Chirikure, S. (2007). Metals in society: Iron production and its position in Iron Age communities of southern Africa. Journal of Social Archaeology, 7(1), 72–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Chirikure, S. (2014). Land and sea links: 1500 years of connectivity between southern Africa and the Indian Ocean rim regions, AD 700–1700. African Archaeological Review, 31(4), 705–724.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Chirikure, S. (2015). Metals in past societies. New York: Springer.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  39. Chirikure, S., Bandama, F., Chipunza, K., Mahachi, G., Matenga, E., Mupira, P., et al. (2016b). Seen but not told: Re-mapping Great Zimbabwe using archival data, satellite imagery and geographical information systems. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 1–25.

  40. Chirikure, S., Bandama, F., House, M., Moffett, A., Mukwende, T., & Pollard, M. (2016a). Decisive evidence for multidirectional evolution of sociopolitical complexity in southern Africa. African Archaeological Review, 33(1), 75–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Chirikure, S., Hall, S., & Rehren, T. (2015). When ceramic sociology meets material science: Sociological and technological aspects of crucibles and pottery from Mapungubwe, southern Africa. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 40, 23–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Chirikure, S., Manyanga, M., Pikirayi, I., & Pollard, M. (2013a). New pathways of sociopolitical complexity in southern Africa. African Archaeological Review, 30(4), 339–366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Chirikure, S., Manyanga, M., & Pollard, A. M. (2012). When science alone is not enough: Radiocarbon timescales, history, ethnography and elite settlements in southern Africa. Journal of Social Archaeology, 12(3), 356–379.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Chirikure, S., Manyanga, M., Pollard, A. M., Bandama, F., Mahachi, G., & Pikirayi, I. (2014). Zimbabwe culture before Mapungubwe: New evidence from Mapela Hill, south-western Zimbabwe. PLoS ONE, 9(10), e111224.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Chirikure, S., Nyanushosho, R., Chimhundu, H., Mujere, J. (2017). Rain-making as a misnomer: Exploring the practice of mukwerera (rain imploring) among the Shona.

  46. Chirikure, S., & Pikirayi, I. (2008). Inside and outside the dry stone walls: Revisiting the material culture of Great Zimbabwe. Antiquity, 82(318), 976–993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Chirikure, S., Pollard, A. M., Manyanga, M., & Bandama, F. (2013b). A Bayesian chronology for Great Zimbabwe: Re-threading the sequence of a vandalised monument. Antiquity, 87(337), 854–872.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Collett, D. P. (1993). Metaphors and representations associated with precolonial iron-smelting in eastern and southern Africa. In B. Andah, A. Okpoko, T. Shaw, & P. Sinclair (Eds.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals and towns (pp. 499–511). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Collett, D., Vines, A., & Hughes, G. (1992). Dating and chronologies of the Valley Enclosures: Implications for the interpretation of Great Zimbabwe. The African Archaeological Review, 10, 139–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Connah, G. (2001). African civilizations: An archaeological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Coquery-Vidrovitch, C. (1969). Recherches sur un mode de production africain (Research on an African Mode of Production). La Pensée, 144, 61–78.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Costin, C. L. (1991). Specialization: Issues in defining, documenting, and explaining the organization of production. In M. Schiffer (Ed.), Archaeological method and theory (pp. 1–56). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Crumley, C. L. (1995). Heterarchy and the analysis of complex societies. In R. M. Ehrenreich, C. L. Crumley, & J. E. Levy (Eds.), Heterarchy and the analysis of complex societies (pp. 1–5). Washington: American Anthropological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  54. D’Altroy, T. N., & Earle, T. K. (1985). Staple finance, wealth finance, and storage in the Inka political economy. Current Anthropology, 26(2), 187–206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Davison, C. C., & Clark, J. D. (1976). Transvaal heirloom beads and Rhodesian archaeological sites. African Studies, 35(2), 123–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Davison, P., & Harries, P. (1980). Cotton weaving in south-east Africa: Its history and technology. Textile History, 11(1), 175–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. DeMarrais, E. (2004). The materialization of culture. In E. DeMarrais, C. Gosden, & C. Renfrew (Eds.), Rethinking materiality: The engagement of mind with the material world (pp. 11–22). Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Denbow, J. (1986). A new look at the later prehistory of the Kalahari. The Journal of African History, 27(01), 3–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Denbow, J. (1990). Congo to Kalahari: Data and hypotheses about the political economy of the western stream of the Early Iron Age. African Archaeological Review, 8(1), 139–175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Denbow, J., Klehm, C., & Dussubieux, L. (2015). The glass beads of Kaitshàa and early Indian Ocean trade into the far interior of southern Africa. Antiquity, 89(344), 361–377.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Denbow, J., Smith, J., Ndobochani, N. M., Atwood, K., & Miller, D. (2008). Archaeological excavations at Bosutswe, Botswana: Cultural chronology, paleo-ecology and economy. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35(2), 459–480.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Denbow, J. R. (1983). Iron Age economics: Herding, wealth, and politics along the fringes of the Kalahari Desert during the Early Iron Age. Bloomington: Indiana University.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Denbow, J. R. (1984). Cows and kings: A spatial and economic analysis of a hierarchical Early Iron Age settlement system in eastern Botswana. In M. Hall, G. Avery, D. M. Avery, & M. L. Wilson (Eds.), Frontiers: Southern African archaeology today (pp. 24–30). Oxford: Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 10, BAR. International Series 207.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Dietler, M. (2010). Consumption. In D. Hicks & M. Beaudry (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of material culture studies (pp. 207–226). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Donley-Reid, L. W. (1990). The power of Swahili porcelain, beads and pottery. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, 2(1), 47–59.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Earle, T. (2002). Commodity flows and the evolution of complex societies. In E. Ensminger (Ed.), Theory in economic anthropology (pp. 81–104). Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Earle, T. K. (1987). Specialization and the production of wealth: Hawaiian chiefdoms and the Inka Empire. In E. M. Brumfiel & T. K. Earle (Eds.), Specialization, exchange, and complex societies (pp. 64–75). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Earle, T. K. (1997). How chiefs come to power: The political economy in prehistory. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Eicher, J. B. (1995). Introduction: Dress as expression of ethnic identity. In J. B. Eicher (Ed.), Dress and ethnicity: Change across space and time (pp. 1–5). New York: Berg.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  70. Ekholm, K. (1972). Power and prestige: The rise and fall of the Kongo kingdom. Uppsala: Skriv Service.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Ekholm, K., & Friedman, J. (1982). ‘Capital’ imperialism and exploitation in ancient world-systems. Review (Fernand Braudel Center), 6(1), 87–109.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Ellert, H. (1984). The material culture of Zimbabwe. Harare: Longman.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Flannery, K., & Marcus, J. (2012). The creation of inequality: How our prehistoric ancestors set the stage for monarchy, slavery and empire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  74. Fleisher, J., & Wynne-Jones, S. (2010). Authorisation and the process of power: The view from African archaeology. Journal of World Prehistory, 23(4), 177–193.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Fouché, L. (1937). Mapungubwe: Ancient Bantu civilization on the Limpopo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Fowler, C. (2004). The archaeology of personhood: An anthropological approach. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Fowler, C. (2011). Personhood and the body. In T. Insoll (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of the archaeology of ritual and religion (pp. 133–150). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Frankenstein, S., & Rowlands, M. J. (1978). The internal structure and regional context of Early Iron Age society in south-western Germany. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology London, 15, 73–112.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Freeman-Grenville, G. S. P. (1962). The East African coast: Select documents from the first to the earlier nineteenth century. London: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Friedman, J., & Rowlands, M. (1977). Notes towards an epigenetic model for the evolution of ‘civilization’. In J. Friedman & M. Rowlands (Eds.), The evolution of social systems (pp. 201–275). London: Duckworth.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Fuller, D. Q., Boivin, N., Hoogervorst, T., & Allaby, R. (2011). Across the Indian Ocean: The prehistoric movement of plants and animals. Antiquity, 85(328), 544–558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Gardner, G. A. (1963). Mapungubwe (Vol. II). Pretoria: JL van Schaik.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Garlake, P. S. (1967). Seventeenth century Portuguese earthworks in Rhodesia. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 21(84), 157–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Garlake, P. S. (1968a). The value of imported ceramics in the dating and interpretation of the Rhodesian Iron Age. The Journal of African History, 9(1), 13–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Garlake, P.S. (1968b). Test excavations at Mapela Hill, near the Shashe River, Rhodesia. Arnoldia, 3, 1–29.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Garlake, P. S. (1969). Excavations at the seventeenth-century Portuguese site of Dambarare, Rhodesia. Proceedings and Transactions of the Rhodesia Scientific Association, 54(1), 23–61.

  87. Garlake, P. S. (1970). Rhodesian ruins: A preliminary assessment of their styles and chronology. Journal of African History, 11(4), 495–513.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Garlake, P. S. (1973). Great Zimbabwe. London: Thames & Hudson.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Garlake, P. S. (1978). Pastoralism and Zimbabwe. Journal of African History, 19(4), 479–493.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Garlake, P. S. (1982). Prehistory and ideology in Zimbabwe. Africa, 52(03), 1–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Gelfand, M. (1956). Medicines and magic of the Shona. Gweru: Mambo Press.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Gombe, J. M. (1986). Tsika dzava (Our values). Harare: Shona College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Gosden, C. (2005). What do objects want? Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 12(3), 193–211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Gosden, C. (2012). Post-colonial archaeology. In I. Hodder (Ed.), Archaeological theory today (pp. 251–266). Cambridge: Polity Press.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Gosden, C., & Marshall, Y. (1999). The cultural biography of objects. World Archaeology, 31(2), 169–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Greenfield, H. J., & van Schalkwyk, L. (2003). Intra-settlement social and economic organization of Ear4 Iron Age farming communities in southern Africa: A view from Ndondondwane. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 38(1), 121–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Guyer, J. I. (1993). Wealth in people and self-realization in equatorial Africa. Man, 28, 243–265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Guyer, J. I. (1995). Wealth in people, wealth in things—Introduction. The Journal of African History, 36(01), 83–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Guyer, J. I., & Belinga, S. M. E. (1995). Wealth in people as wealth in knowledge: Accumulation and composition in equatorial Africa. The Journal of African History, 36(01), 91–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Haas, J. (1982). The evolution of the prehistoric state. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Hall, M. (1987). The changing past: Farmers, kings and traders in southern Africa, 200–1860. Cape Town: David Philip.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Hall, R. N. (1905). Great Zimbabwe. London: Methuen.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Hall, R. N. (1910). Pre-historic Rhodesia. Cape Town: Maskew Miller.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Hall, R. N., & Neal, W. G. (1902). The ancient ruins of Rhodesia: (Monomotapæ imperium). London: Methuen & Co.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Hamilton, C. (1998). Terrific majesty: The powers of Shaka Zulu and the limits of historical invention. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Hammond-Tooke, W. D. (1981). Boundaries and belief: The structure of a Sotho worldview (Vol. 74). Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Hanisch, E. O. M. (1980). An archaeological interpretation of certain Iron Age sites in the Shashi-Limpopo. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Pretoria.

  108. Hannan, M. (1974). Standard Shona dictionary. London: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Haselgrove, C. (1982). Wealth, prestige and power: The dynamics of late Iron Age political centralisation in south-east England. In C. Renfrew & S. Shennan (Eds.), Ranking, resource and exchange (pp. 79–88). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Hattingh, S., & Hall, S. (2009). Shona ethnography and the archaeology of the K2 burials. Southern African Humanities, 21(1), 299–326.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Hayden, B. (1995). Pathways to power. In T. D. Price & G. M. Feinman (Eds.), Foundations of social inequality (pp. 15–86). New York: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  112. Hayden, B. (1998). Practical and prestige technologies: The evolution of material systems. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 5(1), 1–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Hayden, B., & Villeneuve, S. (2011). A century of feasting studies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 40, 433–449.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Helms, M. W. (1979). Ancient Panama: Chiefs in search of power. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Helms, M. W. (1993). Craft and the kingly ideal: Art, trade, and power. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Herbert, E. W. (1984). Red gold of Africa: Copper in precolonial history and culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Herbert, E. W. (1996). Metals and power at Great Zimbabwe. In G. Pwiti & R. C. Soper (Eds.), Aspects of African archaeology: Papers from the 10th congress of the PanAfrican Association for Prehistory and Related Studies (pp. 641–647). Harare: University of Zimbabwe.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Hirth, K. G. (1996). Political economy and archaeology: Perspectives on exchange and production. Journal of Archaeological Research, 4(3), 203–239.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Holleman, J. F. (1952). Shona customary law: With reference to kinship, marriage, the family and the estate. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Horton, M., & Middleton, J. (2000). The Swahili: The social landscape of a mercantile society. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  121. House, M. (2016). The archaeology of Mapela Hill, South-Western Zimbabwe. Unpublished MSc Thesis, University of Cape Town.

  122. Huffman, T. N. (1971). Cloth from the Iron Age in Rhodesia. Arnoldia, 14(5), 1–19.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Huffman, T. N. (1972). The rise and fall of Zimbabwe. The Journal of African History, 13(3), 353–366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Huffman, T. N. (1974). Ancient mining and Zimbabwe. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 74, 238–242.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Huffman, T. N. (1977). The interpretation of Iron Age radiocarbon dates. Harare: National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia.

    Google Scholar 

  126. Huffman, T. N. (1982). Archaeology and ethnohistory of the African Iron Age. Annual Review of Anthropology, 11, 133–150.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Huffman, T. N. (1986). Iron Age settlement patterns and the origins of class distinction in southern Africa. Advances in World Archaeology, 5, 291–336.

    Google Scholar 

  128. Huffman, T. N. (1996). Snakes and crocodiles: Power and symbolism in ancient Zimbabwe. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  129. Huffman, T. N. (2000). Mapungubwe and the origins of the Zimbabwe culture. South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series, 8, 14–29.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Huffman, T. N. (2007). Handbook to the Iron Age. Durban: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

    Google Scholar 

  131. Huffman, T. N. (2009). Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe: The origin and spread of social complexity in southern Africa. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 28(1), 37–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  132. Huffman, T. N. (2010). State formation in southern Africa: A reply to Kim and Kusimba. African Archaeological Review, 27(1), 1–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  133. Huffman, T. N. (2015). Mapela, Mapungubwe and the origins of states in southern Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin, 70(201), 15–27.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Humphrey, C., & Hugh-Jones, S. (1992). Barter, exchange and value: An anthropological approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  135. Johnson, A. W., & Earle, T. K. (2000). The evolution of human societies: From foraging group to agrarian state. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  136. Joyce, R. A. (2005). Archaeology of the body. Annual Review of Anthropology, 34, 139–158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Junod, H. A. (1927). The life of a South African tribe (Vols. I & II). London: MacMillan & Co.

    Google Scholar 

  138. Killick, D. (2009). Agency, dependency, and long-distance trade: East Africa and the Islamic world, ca. 700–1500 CE. In S. E. Falconer & C. L. Redman (Eds.), Polities and power: Archaeological perspectives on the landscapes of early states (pp. 179–207). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

    Google Scholar 

  139. Kim, N. C., & Kusimba, C. M. (2008). Pathways to social complexity and state formation in the southern Zambezian region. African Archaeological Review, 25(3–4), 131–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Kipp, R. S., & Schortman, E. M. (1989). The political impact of trade in chiefdoms. American Anthropologist, 91(2), 370–385.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  141. Koleini, F., Prinsloo, L. C., Biemond, W. M., Colomban, P., Ngo, A. T., Boeyens, J. C., et al. (2015). Towards refining the classification of glass trade beads imported into Southern Africa from the 8th to the 16th century AD. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 19, 435–444.

  142. Kopytoff, I. (1987). The African frontier: The reproduction of traditional African societies. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  143. Kovacevich, B., & Callaghan, M. G. (2013). Introduction: Inalienability, value, and the construction of social difference. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, 23(1), 1–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  144. Kristiansen, K. (1987). Centre and periphery in Bronze Age Scandinavia. In M. J. Rowlands, M. Larsen, & K. Kristiansen (Eds.), Centre and periphery in the ancient world (pp. 74–86). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  145. Kristiansen, K., & Larsson, T. B. (2005). The rise of Bronze Age society: Travels, transmissions and transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  146. Kusimba, C. M. (1999). The rise and fall of Swahili states (Vol. 1). Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.

    Google Scholar 

  147. Lan, D. (1985). Guns and rain: Guerrillas and spirit mediums in Zimbabwe. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  148. Lan, D. (1987). Guns and rain: Guerrillas and spirit mediums in Zimbabwe (Vol. 38). California: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  149. Lane, P. (2011). Possibilities for a postcolonial archaeology in sub-Saharan Africa: Indigenous and usable pasts. World Archaeology, 43(1), 7–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  150. Lane, P. (2016). Ethnoarchaeology: A conceptual and practical bridging of the intangible and tangible cultural heritage divide. In S. Biagetti, & F. Lugli (Eds.), The intangible elements of culture in ethnoarchaeological research (pp. 77–91). New York: Springer.

  151. LaViolette, A. (2008). Swahili cosmopolitanism in Africa and the Indian Ocean world, AD 600–1500. Archaeologies, 4(1), 24–49.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  152. Loubser, J. H. N. (1991). The ethnoarchaeology of Venda-speakers in southern Africa. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein, 7, 146–464.

    Google Scholar 

  153. MacGonagle, E. (2007). Crafting identity in Zimbabwe and Mozambique (Vol. 30). Rochester: University Rochester Press.

    Google Scholar 

  154. MacIver, D. R. (1906). Mediaeval Rhodesia. London: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  155. Mackenzie, J. M. (1975). A pre-colonial industry: The Njanja and the iron trade. Nada, 11(2), 200–220.

    Google Scholar 

  156. Mafeje, A. (1991). The theory and ethnography of African social formations: The case of the interlacustrine kingdoms. London: Codesria.

    Google Scholar 

  157. Maggs, T. (1984). Ndondondwane: A preliminary report on an Early Iron Age site on the lower Tugela river. Southern African Humanities, 26(1), 71–93.

    Google Scholar 

  158. Maggs, T. (1992). ‘My father’s hammer never ceased its song day and night’: The Zulu ferrous metalworking industry. Southern African Humanities, 4, 65–87.

    Google Scholar 

  159. Maggs, T., & Miller, D. (1995). Sandstone crucibles from Mhlopeni, KwaZulu-Natal: Evidence of precolonial brassworking. Southern African Humanities, 7, 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  160. Maggs, T., & Whitelaw, G. (1991). A review of recent archaeological research on food-producing communities in southern Africa. The Journal of African History, 32(01), 3–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  161. Manyanga, M. (2006). Resilient landscapes: Socio-environmental dynamics in the Shashi—Limpopo basin, southern Zimbabwe c. AD 800 to the present. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Uppsala University.

  162. Manyanga, M., Pikirayi, I., & Chirikure, S. (2010). Conceptualising the urban mind in pre-European southern Africa: Rethinking Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe. In P. J. J. Sinclair, G. Nordquist, F. Herschend, & C. Isendahl (Eds.), The urban mind: Cultural and environmental dynamics (pp. 573–590). Uppsala: Uppsala University: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.

    Google Scholar 

  163. Marcus, J. (2008). The archaeological evidence for social evolution. Annual Review of Anthropology, 37, 251–266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  164. Marcus, M. I. (1993). Incorporating the body: Adornment, gender, and social identity in ancient Iran. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 3(2), 157–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  165. Mauch, C. (1874). Reisem im Inneren von Süd Afrika 1865–1872 (Travels in the interior of South Africa 1865—1872). Gotha: Justus Perthes.

    Google Scholar 

  166. Mauss, M. (1954[1925]). The gift: Forms and functions of exchange in archaic societies. London: Cohen and West.

    Google Scholar 

  167. McIntosh, R. J. (1991). Early urban clusters in China and Africa: The arbitration of social ambiguity. Journal of Field Archaeology, 18(2), 199–212.

    Google Scholar 

  168. McIntosh, S. K. (1999). Pathways to complexity: An African perspective. In S. K. McIntosh (Ed.), Beyond chiefdoms: Pathways to complexity in Africa (pp. 1–30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  169. McIntosh, R. J. (2005). Ancient Middle Niger: Urbanism and the self-organizing landscape. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  170. McIntosh, S. K., & McIntosh, R. J. (1993). Cities without citadels: Understanding urban origins along the Middle Niger. In B. Andah, A. Okpoko, T. Shaw, & P. Sinclair (Eds.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals and towns (pp. 622–641). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  171. Meyer, A. (2000). K2 and Mapungubwe. South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series, 8, 4–13.

  172. Middleton, J. (2003). Merchants: An essay in historical ethnography. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 9(3), 509–526.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  173. Miller, D. (1995). Consumption and commodities. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, 141–161.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  174. Miller, D. (2001). Metal assemblages from Greefswald areas K2, Mapungubwe hill and Mapungubwe southern terrace. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 56, 83–103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  175. Miller, D., & Whitelaw, G. (1994). Early Iron Age metal working from the site of KwaGandaganda, Natal, South Africa. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 49, 79–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  176. Mills, B. J. (2004). The establishment and defeat of hierarchy: Inalienable possessions and the history of collective prestige structures in the Pueblo Southwest. American Anthropologist, 106(2), 238–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  177. Mitchell, P. (2002). The archaeology of Southern Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  178. Monroe, J. C. (2013). Power and agency in precolonial African states. Annual Review of Anthropology, 42, 17–35.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  179. Mudenge, S. I. (1974). The role of foreign trade in the Rozvi Empire: A reappraisal. Journal of African History, 15(3), 373–391.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  180. Mudenge, S. I. (1988). A political history of Munhumutapa c 1400–1902. London: James Currey.

    Google Scholar 

  181. Mullins, P. R. (2011). The archaeology of consumption. Annual Review of Anthropology, 40, 133–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  182. Murimbika, M. (2006). Sacred powers and rituals of transformation: An ethnoarchaeological study of rainmaking rituals and agricultural productivity during the evolution of the Mapungubwe state, AD 1000 to AD 1300. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

  183. Newitt, M. D. D. (1995). A history of Mozambique. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  184. Ngwaru, C. K. J. (2012). Tsime retsumo, madimikira netuzvirevo (Well of proverbs, idioms and other statements). Harare: College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  185. Ogundiran, A. (2002). Of small things remembered: Beads, cowries, and cultural translations of the Atlantic experience in Yorubaland. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 35, 427–457.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  186. Oka, R., & Kusimba, C. (2008). The archaeology of trading systems, part 1: Towards a new trade synthesis. Journal of Archaeological Research, 16, 339–395.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  187. Paynter, R. (1989). The archaeology of equality and inequality. Annual Review of Anthropology, 18(1), 369–399.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  188. Peregrine, P. N. (1990). Archaeology and world-systems theory. Sociological Inquiry, 60(1), 486–495.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  189. Peregrine, P. N. (1992). Mississippian evolution: A world-system perspective. Madison: Prehistory Press.

    Google Scholar 

  190. Peregrine, P. N. (1996). Introduction: World-systems theory and archaeology. In P. N. Peregrine & G. M. Feinman (Eds.), Pre-Columbian world systems. Monographs in World Prehistory (Vol. 26, pp. 1–10). Madison: Prehistory Press.

    Google Scholar 

  191. Pikirayi, I. (1993). The archaeological identity of the Mutapa state: Towards an historical archaeology of northern Zimbabwe (Vol. 6). Uppsala: Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis.

    Google Scholar 

  192. Pikirayi, I. (2001). The Zimbabwe culture: Origins and decline of southern Zambezian states. Oxford: Altamira.

    Google Scholar 

  193. Pikirayi, I. (2013). Stone architecture and the development of power in the Zimbabwe tradition AD 1270–1830. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 48(2), 282–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  194. Pikirayi, I. (2015). The future of archaeology in Africa. Antiquity, 89(345), 531–541.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  195. Pikirayi, I., & Chirikure, S. (2011). Debating great Zimbabwe. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa, 46(2), 221–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  196. Pouwels, R. L. (2002). Eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean to 1800: Reviewing relations in historical perspective. The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 35(2/3), 385–425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  197. Prestholdt, J. (2004). On the global repercussions of East African consumerism. The American Historical Review, 109(3), 755–781.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  198. Prestholdt, J. (2008). Domesticating the world: African consumerism and the genealogies of globalization. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  199. Preucel, R. W., & Hodder, I. (1996). Contemporary archaeology in theory. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  200. Price, T. D., & Feinman, G. M. (1995). Foundations of social inequality. New York: Plenum.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  201. Price, T. D., & Feinman, G. M. (2010). Social inequality and the evolution of human social organization. In T. D. Price, & G. M. Feinman (Eds.), Pathways to power (pp. 1–14). New York: Springer.

  202. Pwiti, G. (1991). Trade and economies in southern Africa: The archaeological evidence. Zambezia, 18(2), 119–129.

    Google Scholar 

  203. Pwiti, G. (1996). Continuity and change: An archaeological study of farming communities in northern Zimbabwe AD 500–1700. Studies in African Archaeology, 13. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology, University of Uppsala.

  204. Pwiti, G. (2005). Southern Africa and the east African coast. In A. Stahl (Ed.), African archaeology: A critical introduction (pp. 378–391). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  205. Reid, A. (1996). Cattle herds and the redistribution of cattle resources. World Archaeology, 28(1), 43–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  206. Reid, A., & Segobye, A. K. (2000). An ivory cache from Botswana. Antiquity, 74(284), 326–331.

    Google Scholar 

  207. Renfrew, C. (1973). The explanation of culture change: Models in prehistory. London: Duckworth.

    Google Scholar 

  208. Renfrew, C. (1977). Alternative models for exchange and spatial distribution. In T. K. Earle & J. E. Ericson (Eds.), Exchange systems in prehistory (pp. 71–89). New York: Academic Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  209. Renfrew, C. (1984). Approaches to social archaeology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  210. Renfrew, C., & Shennan, S. (1982). Ranking, resource and exchange. Aspects of the archaeology of early European society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  211. Richard, F. G. (2009). Historical and dialectical perspectives on the archaeology of complexity in the Siin-Saalum (Senegal): Back to the future? African Archaeological Review, 26(2), 75–135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  212. Robertshaw, P., Wood, M., Melchiorre, E., Popelka-Filcoff, R. S., & Glascock, M. D. (2010). Southern African glass beads: Chemistry, glass sources and patterns of trade. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37(8), 1898–1912.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  213. Robinson, K. R. (1959). Khami ruins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  214. Robinson, K, R. (1961). Zimbabwe pottery. Occasional papers of the National Museums of Southern Rhodesia, 3(23A), 193–226.

  215. Robinson, K. R. (1966). The Leopard’s Kopje culture, its position in the Iron Age of southern Rhodesia. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 21(81), 5–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  216. Roodt, F. (1993). ‘n Rekonstruksie van geelkoperbewerking by Mgungundlovu (A reconstruction of brassworking at Mgungundlovu). Unpublished M. A. thesis, University of Pretoria.

  217. Roseberry, W. (1989). Anthropologies and histories: Essays in culture, history, and political economy. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  218. Rowlands, M. (1987). Centre and periphery, a review of a concept. In M. J. Rowlands, M. T. Larsen, & K. Kristiansen (Eds.), Centre and periphery in the ancient world (pp. 1–12). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  219. Saitowitz, S. J. (1996). Glass beads as indicators of contact and trade in southern Africa ca. AD 900AD 1250. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Town.

  220. Schneider, J. (1977). Was there a pre-capitalist world-system? Reprinted In C. K. Chase-Dunn & T. D. Hall (Eds.), (1991) Core/periphery relations in pre-capitalist worlds (pp. 45–66). Boulder: Westview Press.

  221. Schofield, J. F. (1937). The pottery of the Mapungubwe district. In Fouché L. (Ed.), Mapungubwe, ancient Bantu civilization on the Limpopo (pp. 32–62). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  222. Schortman, E. M., & Urban, P. A. (2004). Modeling the roles of craft production in ancient political economies. Journal of Archaeological Research, 12(2), 185–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  223. Sciama, L. D., & Eicher, J. B. (1998). Beads and bead makers: Gender, material culture, and meaning. New York: Berg Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  224. Shepherd, N. (2002). The politics of archaeology in Africa. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 189–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  225. Sinclair, P. J. (1982). Chibuene—An early trading site in southern Mozambique. Paideuma, 28, 149–164.

    Google Scholar 

  226. Sinclair, P. J. (1987). Space, time and social formation: A territorial approach to the archaeology and anthropology of Zimbabwe and Mozambique c. 0–1700 AD. Uppsala: Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis.

    Google Scholar 

  227. Sinclair, P., Ekblom, A., & Wood, M. (2012). Trade and society on the south-east African coast in the later first millennium AD: The case of Chibuene. Antiquity, 86(333), 723–737.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  228. Sinclair, P. J., Morais, J., Adamowicz, L., & Duarte, L. (1993). A perspective on archaeological research in Mozambique. In T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah, & A. Okpoko (Eds.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals and towns (pp. 1–31). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  229. Smith, A. (1970). Delagoa bay and the trade of south-eastern Africa. In R. Gray & D. Birmingham (Eds.), Precolonial African trade (pp. 265–291). London: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  230. Smith, C., & Jackson, G. (2006). Decolonizing indigenous archaeology: Developments from down under. The American Indian Quarterly, 30(3), 311–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  231. Smith, M. E. (2004). The archaeology of ancient state economies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 73–102.

  232. Smith, M. L. (1999). The role of ordinary goods in premodern exchange. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 6(2), 109–135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  233. Southall, A. (1988). The segmentary state in Africa and Asia. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 30(1), 52–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  234. Stahl, A. B. (1999). Perceiving variability in time and space: The evolutionary mapping of African societies. In S. K. McIntosh (Ed.), Beyond chiefdoms: Pathways to complexity in Africa (pp. 39–550). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  235. Stahl, A. B. (2004). Political economic mosaics: Archaeology of the last two millennia in tropical sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33, 145–172.

  236. Stahl, A. B. (2010). Material histories. In D. Hicks & M. Beaudry (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of material culture studies (pp. 148–170). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  237. Stayt, H. A. (1931). The Bavenda. London: Frank Cass & Co.

    Google Scholar 

  238. Stein, G. J. (1998). Heterogeneity, power, and political economy: Some current research issues in the archaeology of Old World complex societies. Journal of Archaeological Research, 6(1), 1–44.

    Google Scholar 

  239. Stein, G. J. (2007). Understanding ancient state societies in the old world. In G. M. Feinman & T. D. Price (Eds.), Archaeology at the millennium: A sourcebook (pp. 353–379). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  240. Stevenson, M., & Graham-Stewart, M. (2000). South East African Beadwork, 1850–1910: From adornment to artefact to art. Cape Town: Fernwood Press.

    Google Scholar 

  241. Steyn, M., & Nienaber, W. C. (2000). Iron Age human skeletal remains from the Limpopo Valley and Soutpansberg area. South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series, 8, 112–116.

  242. Summers, R. (1963). Was Zimbabwe civilized? In Conference of the history of the central African peoples. Lusaka.

  243. Summers, R. (1965). Zimbabwe: A Rhodesian mystery. Johannesburg: Thomas Nelson.

    Google Scholar 

  244. Summers, R. (1969). Ancient mining in Rhodesia and adjacent areas. Museums Memoir No. 3. Salisbury: National Museums & Monuments of Rhodesia.

  245. Summers, R. (1971). Ancient ruins and vanished civilisations of southern Africa. Cape Town: TV Bulpin.

    Google Scholar 

  246. Summers, R., Robinson, K. R., & Whitty, A. (1961). Zimbabwe excavations, 1958. Occasional papers of the national museums and monuments of southern Rhodesia. Series A, Human Sciences, 3, 226–333.

    Google Scholar 

  247. Sutton, J. E. G. (1990). A thousand years of East Africa. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa.

    Google Scholar 

  248. Swan, L. M. (1994). Early gold mining on the Zimbabwean plateau: Changing patterns of gold production in the first and second millennia AD. Uppsala: Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis.

    Google Scholar 

  249. Swan, L. M. (2007). Economic and ideological roles of copper ingots in prehistoric Zimbabwe. Antiquity, 81(314), 999–1012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  250. Thomas, N. (1991). Entangled objects: Exchange, material culture, and colonialism in the Pacific. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  251. Thondhlana, T. P., & Martinón-Torres, M. (2009). Small size, high value: Composition and manufacture of second millennium AD copper-based beads from northern Zimbabwe. Journal of African Archaeology, 7(1), 79–97.

  252. Trubitt, M. B. D. (2003). The production and exchange of marine shell prestige goods. Journal of Archaeological Research, 11(3), 243–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  253. Tsodzo, T. K. M. (1976). Cattle are our bank. In C. Kliff & P. Kliff (Eds.), Shona customs. Harare: Gombe Press.

    Google Scholar 

  254. Van Ewyk, J. F. (1987). The prehistory of an Iron Age site on Skutwater. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria.

  255. Van Waarden, C. (1989). The granaries of Vumba: Structural interpretation of a Khami Period commoner site. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 8(2), 131–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  256. Van Waarden, C. (2011). The origin of Zimbabwe tradition walling. Zimbabwean Prehistory, 29, 54–77.

    Google Scholar 

  257. Van Waarden, C., & Mosothwane, M. N. (2013). A Leopard’s Kopje burial at Mathangwane in north-eastern Botswana. The South African Archaeological Bulletin, 68(198), 173–187.

  258. Vansina, J. M. (1985). Oral tradition as history. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  259. Vansina, J. (1999). Pathways of political development in equatorial Africa and neo-evolutionary theory. In S. K. McIntosh (Ed.), Beyond chiefdoms: Pathways to complexity in Africa (pp. 166–172). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  260. Vernet, T. (2009). Slave trade and slavery on the Swahili coast (1500–1750). In B. A. Mirzai, I. M. Montana, & P. Lovejoy (Eds.), Slavery, Islam and diaspora (pp. 37–76). Trenton: Africa World Press.

    Google Scholar 

  261. Vernet, T. (2013). East Africa: Slave migrations. In I. Ness (Ed.), The encyclopedia of global human migration (pp. 1283–1290). Oxford: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  262. Voigt, E. A. (1983). Mapungubwe: An archaeozoological interpretation of an Iron Age community. Pretoria: Transvaal Museum.

    Google Scholar 

  263. Vosloo, F. A. (2001). A preliminary investigation of beads as ethnic markers in the Shashe/Limpopo Area. Unpublished Honours dissertation, University of Cape Town.

  264. Wallerstein, I. M. (1974). The modern world system: Capitalist agriculture and the European world economy in the sixteenth century. New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  265. Wallerstein, I. M. (1984). The politics of the world-economy: The states, the movements and the civilizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  266. Weiner, A. B. (1985). Inalienable wealth. American Ethnologist, 12(2), 210–227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  267. Wilmsen, E. (2009a). The regulation of commodity exchange in southern Africa during the eighth to fifteenth centuries CE. In F. K. von Benda-Beckmann & A. Griffiths (Eds.), Spatializing law: Toward an anthropological geography of law and society (pp. 177–194). Farnham: Ashgate.

  268. Wilmsen, E. N. (2009b). Hills and the brilliance of beads: Myths and the interpretation of Iron Age sites in southern Africa. Southern African Humanities, 21(1), 263–274.

    Google Scholar 

  269. Wood, M. (2000). Making connections: Relationships between international trade and glass beads from the Shashe—Limpopo area. South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series, 8, 78–90.

    Google Scholar 

  270. Wood, M. (2005). Glass beads and pre-European trade in the ShasheLimpopo region. Unpublished MA thesis, University of the Witwatersrand.

  271. Wood, M. (2011). A glass bead sequence for southern Africa from the 8th to the 16th century AD. Journal of African Archaeology, 9(1), 67–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  272. Wood, M. (2012). Interconnections: Glass beads and trade in southern and eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean7th to 16th centuries AD. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Studies in Global Archaeology 17, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University.

  273. Woodward, A. (2002). Beads and beakers: Heirlooms and relics in the British early Bronze Age. Antiquity, 76(294), 1040–1047.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  274. Yoffee, N. (2005). Myths of the archaic state: Evolution of the earliest cities, states, and civilizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  275. Zvarevashe, I. M. (1970). Kurauone (Grow up and see!). Salisbury: Literature Bureau.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

Funding for this research was provided by the National Research Foundation of South Africa and the University of Cape Town.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Abigail Joy Moffett.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Moffett, A.J., Chirikure, S. Exotica in Context: Reconfiguring Prestige, Power and Wealth in the Southern African Iron Age. J World Prehist 29, 337–382 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10963-016-9099-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Prestige goods
  • External trade
  • Complexity
  • Southern Africa