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Table 1 Radiocarbon determinations from the South Area deep sounding at Çatalhöyük East

From: Getting to the Bottom of It All: A Bayesian Approach to Dating the Start of Çatalhöyük

Laboratory number Sample reference Context and material Radiocarbon age (BP) δ13C (‰) Highest posterior density interval (probability) Notes
UCIAMS-98210 4555 Left femur from articulated neonate burial (F.493) in Sp.171 in B.18 (E.X.8) 7940 ± 30 nm cal BC 69556685 (95 %)  
UCIAMS-103134 4779.F16 Articulating sheep-sized ribs and vertebrae lying on the floor of Sp.200 in B.23 (E.X.1) 7955 ± 25 −16.9 cal BC 69606695 (95 %)  
P-782 Level X Unidentified charcoal from hearth in Shrine E.X.1 (Mellaart 1963, p. 116) 8092 ± 98 cal BC 73456695 (95 %) Mellaart (1963), p. 116; Stuckenrath and Ralph (1965), p. 191
OxA-21261 4853 Right femur from an articulated human foetus, buried in a basket in grave F.543 in B.23 (E.X.1) 8033 ± 39 −18.0 cal BC 69406745 (92 %) or cal BC 6725–6700 (3 %)  
OxA-21262 4861 Right femur from an articulated neonate, buried in a basket and covered in red pigment in grave F.544 in B.23 (E.X.1) 7955 ± 40 −17.3 cal BC 69906790 (95 %)  
UCIAMS-103138 4850.F151 Right tibia from perinatal sheep/goat skeleton from penning deposits in Sp.198 7920 ± 25 −17.8 cal BC 70206880 (95 %)  
OxA-23247 4850.F149 Right tibia from perinatal sheep/goat skeleton from same deposit as UCIAMS-103138 8027 ± 37 −17.1 cal BC 7020–6875 (95 %)  
OxA-9774 4715 Scirpus seeds from a deposit formed during the penning of ovicaprids in Sp.198 7935 ± 50 −23.2 cal BC 70506910 (95 %) Cessford (2001); 7955 ± 37 BP; T′=0.4; T′(5%)=3.8; ν=1
OxA-9946 4715 Replicate measurement on same bulk sample as OxA-9774; ‘tiny seeds and dust’ were bulked for pretreatment, and then combusted, graphitised and dated separately (ORAU 2/11/2000) 7980 ± 55 −23.3   
UCIAMS-98208 4517.F7 Sheep/goat right ilium with refitting unfused ischium from penning deposit in Sp.199 7965 ± 25 nm cal BC 70306925 (95 %)  
UCIAMS-98209 4517.F1 & F2 Articulating sheep right metatarsal and 1st phalanx from same deposit as UCIAMS-98208 7990 ± 25 nm cal BC 70306925 (95 %)  
OxA-9947 4822 Bulk sample of three grains of Triticum sp. (ORAU 7/11/2000) from a deposit formed during the penning of ovicaprids in Sp.199 7985 ± 50 −22.4 cal BC 70656935 (95 %) Cessford (2001)
OxA-9775 4826 Fragments of Triticum sp. from a burning event in Sp.199 8090 ± 55 −20.5 cal BC 71757030 (95 %) Cessford (2001); 8090 ± 37 BP; T′=0.0; T′(5%)=3.8; ν=1
OxA-9948 4826 Replicate measurement on same bulk sample as OxA-9775; ‘fragments of Triticum sp.’ were bulked for pretreatment, and then combusted, graphitised and dated separately (ORAU 4/9/2000) 8090 ± 50 −20.7   
OxA-23523 4828 Human right femur from articulated neonate burial in a basket F.525 in Sp.199 7931 ± 38 −17.8 cal BC 70306930 (95 %) 7958 ± 21 BP; T′=0.7; T′(5%)=3.8; ν=1
UCIAMS-103135 4828 Replicate of OxA-23523 7970 ± 25 −18.3   
OxA-23248 4869.F1 & F2 Articulating sheep right astragalus and calcaneum from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.A) 8082 ± 37 −19.5 cal BC 70456975 (94 %) or cal BC 69656950 (1 %)  
UCIAMS-103141 4869.F3 & F4 Articulating cattle right ischium and unfused proximal femur epiphysis from same deposit as OxA-23248 7980 ± 25 −18.9 cal BC 70406970 (95 %)  
UCIAMS-103140 4867.F5 & F6 Articulating sheep left tibia and astragalus from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.A) 8025 ± 25 −17.7 cal BC 70506995 (95 %)  
OxA-27087 4867.F7 Sheep 1st phalanx with refitting unfused epiphysis from same deposit as UCIAMS-103140 8000 ± 40 −16.0 cal BC 70506995 (95 %)  
UCIAMS-103139 4865.F3–F5 Articulating cattle left navicular cuboid, 2 + 3 tarsal, & metatarsal 3 + 4 from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.A) 7970 ± 25 −18.8 cal BC 70507010 (95 %)  
UCIAMS-103136 4836.F571 Sheep/goat tibia with refitting unfused epiphysis from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.A) 7940 ± 25 −19.8 cal BC 70406975 (95 %)  
OxA-13804 4836 Silicified/calcified Celtis sp. from same deposit as UCIAMS-103136 7765 ± 38 −8.6  
UCIAMS-103137 4837.F12 Sheep/goat tibia with refitting unfused distal epiphysis from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.A) 7965 ± 30 −20.7 cal BC 70456990 (95 %)  
OxA-13805 4839 Silicified/calcified Celtis sp. from dump/coarsely bedded midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.A) 7755 ± 39 −8.9  
OxA-9949 4848 Three Pisum seeds (ORAU 7/11/2000) from a distinctive in situ burning episode in Sp.181 (pre-XII.A) 8050 ± 50 −21.7 cal BC 70507005 (95 %) Cessford (2001)
OxA-13869 4848 Silicified/calcified Celtis sp. from the same deposit as OxA-9949 7830 ± 40 −9.8  
OxA-23249 4878.F397 & F398 Articulating dog 1st and 2nd phalanges from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.B) 8024 ± 35 −17.4 cal BC 70557025 (95 %)  
OxA-9950 5276 Fragments of Pisum seeds (ORAU 4/9/2000) from a deposit associated with lime burning in Sp.181 (pre-XII.B) 8030 ± 50 −21.4 cal BC 70607030 (95 %) Cessford (2001)
UCIAMS-109991 5279.F1 & F2 Articulating dog radius and ulna (F1 & F2) from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.B) 8035 ± 30 cal BC 70607035 (95 %)  
OxA-23250 5283.F3 & F4 Articulating neonatal sheep/goat metacarpal 3 + 4 and 1st phalanx from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.B) 8085 ± 36 −19.2 cal BC 70707040 (95 %)  
UCIAMS-109992 5283.F1 & F2 Articulating sheep 1st & 2nd phalanges, possibly dog-digested, from same deposit as OxA-23250 8030 ± 30 −17.0 cal BC 70657040 (95 %)  
OxA-9776 5292 Scirpus seeds from a deposit associated with lime burning in Sp.181 (pre-XII.B) 7985 ± 55 −23.5 cal BC 70757045 (95 %) Cessford 2001; ‘tiny seeds and dust were bulked for dating’ (ORAU 4/9/2000)
OxA-23251 5308.F89 & F90 Articulating goat axis and cervical vertebra from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.C) 8137 ± 36 −15.5 cal BC 70907055 (95 %)  
OxA-13870 5315 Silicified/calcified Celtis sp. from coarsely bedded midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.C) 8170 ± 45 −12.7  
UCIAMS-109993 5316.F1 & F2 Articulating sheep 1st and 2nd phalanges from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.C) 8160 ± 30 −17.4 cal BC 71007060 (95 %)  
OxA-9892 5317 Four Lens seeds (ORAU 4/9/2000) from a ‘fire spot’ in Sp.181 (pre-XII.C) 8150 ± 50 −23.7 cal BC 71057065 (95 %) Cessford (2001)
OxA-9777 5323 Five Lens seeds (ORAU 4/9/2000) from a distinctive coarsely bedded midden from alluviated dumping deposit in Sp.181 (pre-XII.C) 8160 ± 50 −23.9 cal BC 71207070 (95 %) Cessford (2001)
OxA-11267 5323 Celtis silicified/calcified seed from same deposit as OxA-9777 7990 ± 50 −10.1 OxA-11267 has been erroneously published as 8050 ± 60 BP (Cessford 2005, pp. 71, 91). This was a duplicate measurement undertaken as part of the internal quality control procedures of the laboratory and has not been issued.
UCIAMS-109994 5323.F70 & F71 Sheep/goat humerus with refitting unfused epiphysis from same deposit as OxA-9777 8210 ± 30 −18.2 cal BC 71207070 (95 %) δ15N=+9.9‰; C:N ratio=2.83
OxA-9778 5324 Two grains of Triticum dicoccum (ORAU 4/9/2000) from an alluviated dumping deposit in Sp.181 (pre-XII.D) 8240 ± 55 −21.4 cal BC 71507075 (95 %) Cessford (2001)
OxA-12107 5324 Celtis silicified/calcified seed from same deposit as OxA-9778 7904 ± 38 −9.6  
OxA-13806 5327 Celtis silicified/calcified seed from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.D) 7914 ± 40 −11.9  
OxA-23252 5328 Articulating sheep/goat metatarsal 3 + 4 and naviculo-cuboid (5328.F322–3) from midden in Sp.181 (pre-XII.D) 8199 ± 36 −17.9 cal BC 71507080 (95 %)  
UCIAMS-109995 5328.F112 Humerus from a probably stillborn lamb/kid from same deposit as OxA-23252 8020 ± 30 nm Low yield (>0.2 %) in >30 kD ultrafiltration; considered anomalous
OxA-13807 5328 Celtis silicified/calcified seed from same deposit as OxA-23252 8000 ± 38 −10.7  
OxA-9893 5329 Triticum/Pisum/Cerealae seeds from alluviated dumping deposit in Sp.181 (pre-XII.D) 8155 ± 50 −22.0 cal BC 71557080 (95 %) Cessford (2001; ‘fragments of seeds were dated’ (ORAU 4/9/2000)
PL-980525A ?Pre XII.D Unidentified charcoal fragments from clay-silt matrix at recovered in Core ÇH94A at the base of East Mound 8390 ± 90 −24.0 cal BC 75907245 (91 %) or cal BC 72307185 (4 %) Göktürk et al. (2002)
AA-27982 ?Pre XII.D Unidentified charcoal fragments from clay-silt matrix recovered in Core ÇH94A at the base of East Mound 8195 ± 80 −24.0 cal BC 74557390 (7 %) or cal BC 73807085 (88 %) Göktürk et al. (2002)
  1. (1) Technical details for measurements previously published are as outlined in the references given; (2) All radiocarbon results reported for the first time here are conventional radiocarbon ages corrected for fractionation using δ13C values measured by AMS; (3) δ13C values reported here have been measured by IRMS from sub-samples of the CO2 which was subsequently graphitised and dated; nm, insufficient gas available for IRMS isotopic determination; (4) Further detail of the exact material dated at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit between 1999 and 2003 has been traced in the laboratory archive, and so the information given in this table supersedes that provided by Cessford (2005, Table 4.1); (5) Highest posterior density intervals are from our preferred model (Model 3; Fig. 2)